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Cayuga and York, Ontario in Colour Photos – My Top 14 Picks

Cayuga and York, Ontario

Early patterns of settlement in Haldimand County are still visible in the landscape and architecture, spanning from the pre-Contact era to the proclamation of the Haldimand Land Grant for the Six Nations and the subsequent migration of Loyalist settlers – Americans, largely of German descent and Mennonite tradition. Throughout the 1800s, immigration from the British Isles contributed significantly to the area’s development, as did the small but industrious Black community of the late nineteenth century – many descended from ex-slaves of the American South. Since the post-war years of the twentieth century, a significant stream of immigration from the Netherlands has also added to our ever-expanding mosaic of cultural identity, as have the age-old traditions of our Indigenous neighbors – the Six Nations and New Credit communities.

Following the American Revolution, Sir Frederick Haldimand, Governor-in-Chief of Canada, granted in 1784 to the Six Nations of the Iroquois a tract of land extending for six miles on both sides of the Grand River from its source to Lake Erie. This grant was made in recognition of their services as allies of the British Crown during the war, and to recompense them for the loss of their former lands in northern New York State. In later years, large areas of this tract, including portions of the present counties of Haldimand, Brant, Waterloo and Wellington, were sold to white settlers.

By 1853, Cayuga had lumber yards, a foundry, and a glass factory.

At its height, York had twenty businesses that included mills, inns, shoemakers, general stores, blacksmiths, and a lumber yard. It had a two-room school house and two churches.

Architectural Photos, Cayuga, Ontario
1 Cayuga Street North – Greek Revival – pediment above Doric pillars, keystones, quoins
Architectural Photos, Cayuga, Ontario
12 Cayuga Street North – Post Office
Architectural Photos, Cayuga, Ontario
31 Cayuga Street taken from Mohawk Street – Edwardian with bay windows, turret in wing
Architectural Photos, Cayuga, Ontario
55 Munsee Street – Jailer’s Residence – 1877 – Italianate style, low hipped roof, overhanging eaves with brackets, a bullseye window
Architectural Photos, Cayuga, Ontario
Munsee Street – Italianate, paired cornice brackets
Architectural Photos, Cayuga, Ontario
41 Echo Street – Italianate, dormer in attic
Architectural Photos, Cayuga, Ontario
40 Ottawa Street – hipped roof, bay window
Architectural Photos, Cayuga, Ontario
26 Tuscarora Street – hipped roof, cornice brackets, two-story bay windows
Architectural Photos, Cayuga, Ontario
5 Mohawk Street – The Duff House – replica of a 17th century New England Garrison style house – steep pitched cedar-shake A-roof, second story overhang, double casement wooden windows
Architectural Photos, Cayuga, Ontario
17 Winnett Street – gable roof, balanced facade, side sun room with balcony above
Architectural Photos, Cayuga, Ontario
4104 Highway 3 – Campbell-Pine House – c. 1895 – limestone farmhouse with hipped roof, two-story veranda; a large portion of Donald Campbell’s 1847 stone cottage is incorporated into the walls of the house. Donald Campbell was one of the earliest settlers of North Cayuga Township; he operated a steam sawmill on the premises.
Architectural Photos, Cayuga, Ontario
243 Haldimand Highway 54 – Ruthven Estate, the main house and wing, c. 1845, was designed by the master building/architect John Latshaw. Ruthven Park is a 1,500-acre country estate. The house is in the Greek Revival style with a broad staircase leading to a front landing with classical columns. The south wing was added c. 1860, the south-east wing c. 1880, and the east wing c. 1884. It was the former home of five generations of the Thompson family from the 1840s to 1990s. David Thompson came to the area and started a saw mill in 1834, and added a grist mill in 1836. David was instrumental in the laying out of the former 1200-acre town of Indiana. He eventually owned two sawmills, as well as a gristmill, carding mill, cooperage, and several stores. Overall, Indiana supported over thirty industries and was the largest industrial town in Haldimand County in the mid-nineteenth century.
Architectural Photos, York, Ontario
39 Front Street South, York – The Enniskillen Lodge, formerly the Barber Hotel, was built in 1862 for Mr. Daniel Barber, a prominent local hotelier. Large Georgian style windows, doors, and brick detailing are spaced and designed symmetrically. It has a projected cornice with dentils, Regency four-panel door with sidelights and rectangular transom, hood molds over windows, horizontal banding, and corner quoins.
Architectural Photos, York, Ontario
2389 Haldimand Road 9 – Italianate – cornice brackets, corner quoins, two-story bay windows

Fisherville, Nanticoke, Selkirk, Ontario in Colour Photos – My Top 16 Picks

Fisherville, Nanticoke, Selkirk, Ontario

Haldimand County is a municipality on the Niagara Peninsula in Southern Ontario, on the north shore of Lake Erie, and on the Grand River. Haldimand was first created as a county in 1800, from a portion of Norfolk. It was named after the governor of the Province of Quebec Sir Frederick Haldimand. From 1974 to 2000, Haldimand County and Norfolk County were merged to form the Regional Municipality of Haldimand-Norfolk.

The population centers in Haldimand are Caledonia, Dunnville, Hagersville, Jarvis and Cayuga. Most of Haldimand is agricultural land, although some heavy industry, including the Nanticoke Generating Station, is located here. Some of the smaller communities within the municipality are Byng, Canborough, Canfield, Cheapside, Fisherville, Kohler, Lowbanks, Nanticoke, Rainham Centre, Selkirk, South Cayuga, Sweets Corners, and York.

The first white inhabitants of Rainham were Jacob Hoover with his sons Abraham, David, Benjamin and Daniel who came from Pennsylvania in 1791, traveling in wagons in which they carried all their moveable possessions.

They purchased about 2,500 acres of land from the government. The Hoovers were Mennonites of Swiss descent. The Hoovers were a thrifty and industrious family and soon had large clearings. They became wealthy as they were the first settlers who had any surplus produce to sell to others who came a few years later.

Manufactured items were very expensive so the settlers made as many items as they could. Many of them made their own harness of basswood bark boiled in lye which was a fair substitute for leather.

The township covers about 25,000 acres with stiff clay soil that is very productive and well cultivated. Fisherville and Rainham Centre are the only villages wholly in the township. Fisherville is the center of the German settlement and has a population of about one hundred and fifty people.

Nanticoke is located on the western border of Haldimand County. Nanticoke is located directly across Lake Erie from the United States city of Erie, Pennsylvania. Unlike the majority of Haldimand or Norfolk County, Nanticoke is a highly industrialized community. This community is southeast of Simcoe in neighboring Norfolk County and south of Brantford. Nanticoke’s residential area is bordered on the west by the Nanticoke Industrial Park, home to the U.S. Steel Canada Lake Erie Works and a number of smaller businesses.

The Esso Refinery Nanticoke is on the northeast, and the Nanticoke Generating Station is on the southeast. Nanticoke used to be a bustling farming and fishing community inhabited since the late eighteenth century. Nanticoke adapted to the Industrial Revolution and became a desired spot for heavy industry.

In 1974, Nanticoke was incorporated as a city within the Regional Municipality of Haldimand-Norfolk through the amalgamation of the towns of Port Dover and Waterford, the village of Jarvis, and parts of the townships of Rainham, Townsend, Walpole and Woodhouse. In 2001, the town and all other municipalities within the region were dissolved and the region was divided into two single tier municipalities with city-status but called counties. What was the city of Nanticoke is now split between Haldimand County and Norfolk County. Wind Turbines were installed in November 2013.

Cheapside is located in the Regional Municipality of Haldimand-Norfolk and is part of the City of Nanticoke. I n 1854 David Silverthom settled here and opened the first store. He was bought out in 1860 by William Pugsley who called the place Cheap Corner. When the post office opened around 1865 the postal department proposed the present name which was accepted by residents.

Lake Erie shoreline, quiet roads and countryside make Selkirk a haven for travelers. Selkirk is located forty-five kilometers southwest of Hamilton and a short drive from Dunnville, Cayuga, Port Dover and Simcoe. Selkirk is the oldest village in Walpole Township. Settled by the Hoover family around 1800, the village was the site of a mill and an important center for the local farming community. When the post office opened in 1831 the village was called Walpole. In 1855, the village was renamed Selkirk, in honor of Thomas Douglas, Lord Selkirk, who once owned land in the area.

Architectural Photos, Fisherville, Ontario
Ye Olde Fisherville Restaurant
Architectural Photos, Fisherville, Ontario
#4 – second floor balcony
Architectural Photos, Fisherville, Ontario
#9, Fisherville – Gothic
Architectural Photos, Fisherville, Ontario
#19, Fisherville – larger dormer, wraparound veranda
Architectural Photos, Fisherville, Ontario
#12 – Fisherville, Ontario
Architectural Photos, Fisherville, Ontario
#5 Fisherville, Ontario
601 Haldimand Road 12, Fisherville
601 Haldimand Road 12, Fisherville – The Charles Reicheld House crafted by traditional German carpenter Valentine Hartwick in 1886 – farmhouse with cornice brackets, dichromatic brickwork, hipped roof
Architectural Photos, Selkirk, Ontario
95 Concession 4, Fisherville – The Hoover log house built in 1793 on the Lake Erie shore south of Selkirk for Daniel Hoover, son of Jacob Hoover from Pennsylvania. In 1997, the fire damaged remnants were brought by Mr. Bill Fletcher, reassembled and relocated on his farm.
Architectural Photos, Rainham Centre, Ontario
255 Kohler Road, Rainham Centre – former school
Architectural Photos, Nanticoke, Ontario
Nanticoke – Gothic Revival – verge board trim on gables
Architectural Photos, Nanticoke, Ontario
Rainham Road – Methodist Church – 1874
Architectural Photos, Cheapside, Ontario
Wilson MacDonald Memorial School Museum, Cheapside – The original square framed school was opened on land owned by James Buckley and was replaced by this red brick one in 1872. It closed in 1965 and reopened in 1967 as a museum and memorial to Wilson MacDonald, a former student and renowned poet.
Architectural Photos, Selkirk, Ontario
S.S. No. 3 Union School, Selkirk – 1918 – the school closed in 1949. It reopened in 1967 as a library and Selkirk Centennial Community Centre.
Architectural Photos, Selkirk, Ontario
27 Erie Street South, Selkirk – James Cooper built this house in 1870. In 1878 he sold it to George Hoover. The frame house has irregular massing and is in the Second Empire style. It has an over-sized horseshoe dormer with barge board and finial, elaborate window molds with pediments. The three-story tower has four dormers in the mansard roof. The Fess family purchased it in 1947.
Architectural Photos, Selkirk, Ontario
15 Erie Street North, Selkirk – Italianate, hipped roof, cornice brackets, quoins, banding
Architectural Photos, Selkirk, Ontario
15 Erie Street North, Selkirk – Italianate, hipped roof, cornice brackets, quoins, banding

Port Perry, Ontario in Colour Photos – My Top 10 Picks

Port Perry, Ontario

Port Perry is a community located in Scugog, Ontario. The town is located northeast of Toronto and just north of Oshawa. The area around Port Perry was first surveyed as part of Reach Township by Major S. Wilmot in 1809. The first settler in the area was Reuben Crandell, a United Empire Loyalist who built a homestead with his wife in May 1821.

Settler Peter Perry laid out village lots on the shore of Lake Scugog in 1848 on the site of a former native village known as Scugog Village. The town site was named Port Perry in 1852 and its first Postmaster was Joseph Bigelow.

The first train on the Port Whitby and Port Perry Railway reached the terminus in Port Perry in 1872. Cargo from all over northern Ontario was shipped via the Trent-Severn Waterway to Port Perry via Lake Scugog, and then via the railway to Whitby, where it could be loaded onto the Canadian Pacific or Canadian National mainlines running along the shore of Lake Ontario, or onto ships in Port Whitby.

The village was amalgamated with Cartwright, Reach and Scugog Townships to form the Township of Scugog in 1974 upon the creation of the Regional Municipality of Durham.

On July 3, 1884 the entire business section of Port Perry was destroyed by fire. The wooden buildings exploded when sparks hit them. The Ross & Sons Grain Elevator on the waterfront, plus two other buildings were the only ones to survive. Thirty-three commercial buildings housing nearly fifty businesses, as well as factories, warehouses, stables, six lodges, and a dozen homes were reduced to rubble in under an hour.

Four months later, the entire commercial sector with seventeen large brick buildings were built.

Architectural Photos, Port Perry, Ontario
53 Perry Street – The Burnham House is a two-story brick house that was built for John W. Burnham in 1878. The house is located on a large lot that overlooks Lake Scugog to the east. Mr. Burnham served as the local postmaster for 45 years.
Architectural Photos, Port Perry, Ontario
183-189 Queen Street – This impressive red and yellow brick building was constructed in 1885 by Jonathan Blong. He divided the building into a number of units which were leased to local shopkeepers.
Architectural Photos, Port Perry, Ontario
201-203 Queen Street – William Jones formed a partnership with John McClung when this new building was built after the fire destroyed the earlier building in 1884. Clothes, groceries, crockery, boots and shoes were sold. Charles Jones operated a dry goods store in the eastern part. In 1988 the property was purchased by Wayne and Carolyn Luke who opened the Victorian Card Shop in this section.
Architectural Photos, Port Perry, Ontario
250 Queen Street – Dr. Orr Graham, a veterinarian, had this house built in 1886. Upon his retirement in 1909, he sold his house and practice to Dr. John T. Elliot. Dr. Coates arrived in 1910. In 2010, Michael and Frank Konopaski purchased the property and operate their business Scugog Financial and Scugog Accounting Professional Corporation.
Architectural Photos, Port Perry, Ontario
302 Queen Street – Former Port Perry Town Hall – Constructed in 1873, first project of Joseph Bigelow, the first Reeve of Port Perry. Many architectural features of Italianate style, reproduction of the original bell tower.
Architectural Photos, Port Perry, Ontario
Queen Street – Gothic Revival – verge board trim and finial on gable
Architectural Photos, Port Perry, Ontario
327 Queen Street – Dr. Richard Jones’ residence – two story, aluminum siding, belvedere on rooftop – c. 1897
Architectural Photos, Port Perry, Ontario
229 Mary Street – S.E. Allen Residence – 1½ story, brick, Victorian Gothic, symmetrical center hall plan, c. 1870
Architectural Photos, Port Perry, Ontario
234 Mary Street – The Jackson House – 2 story, brick façade, c. 1880
Architectural Photos, Port Perry, Ontario
Corner of Water and Queen Streets – In 1840 Peter Perry purchased forty acres in downtown Port Perry and in 1844 he built a frame building which house a store, trading post, and a home for his agent, Chester Draper. Immediately after Perry’s death is 1851, the property was bought by Mason and Phillips who turned it into a hotel. Henry Charles purchased it in 1867. The present yellow building was built after the fire of 1884. The hotel had thirty rooms including a dining room and at the street level were two stores including a sample room where salesmen could display their wares. They named it the St. Charles Hotel after Henry Charles.

Uxbridge, Ontario – Book 2 – in Colour Photos – My Top 11 Picks

Uxbridge, Ontario – Book 2

Uxbridge is a township in the Regional Municipality of Durham in south-central Ontario and is located about forty kilometers northeast of Metropolitan Toronto. The main center in the township is the community of Uxbridge. Other communities within the township include Coppins Corners, Goodwood, Leaskdale, Sandford, Siloam, Victoria’s Corner, and Zephyr.

The first settlers in the area were Quakers who started arriving in 1806 from Pennsylvania. The community’s oldest building, the Uxbridge Friends Meeting House, was built in 1820 and overlooks the town from Quaker Hill, a kilometer to the west.

Architectural Photos, Uxbridge, Ontario
70 Main Street South – Bascom-Williams House – The house was a small square frame house that was later bricked. The property was originally owned by Dr. Joseph Bascom and was transferred to his daughter Mary in 1872. Mary married Alonzo D. Williams who was the first clerk for the Village of Uxbridge and held that position for 27 years.
Architectural Photos, Uxbridge, Ontario
38 Main Street South – Dr. Mellow-Dr. Bascom House – c. 1863 – verge board trim on gables
Architectural Photos, Uxbridge, Ontario
23 Main Street South – c. 1873 – Early Town Founder, John P. Plank bought 100 acres at the corner of Main and Brock Street in 1825. In 1828 he built the first store in Town and the first saw mill at Elgin Pond.
Architectural Photos, Uxbridge, Ontario
27 Main Street North – verge board trim on gables, bay window with brackets
Architectural Photos, Uxbridge, Ontario
39 Main Street North – Former Commercial Hotel Building and Property – Hobby Horse Arms – c. 1868 – Georgian style
Architectural Photos, Uxbridge, Ontario
23 Franklin Street – Charles Small, Gleeholme, Owner of the Uxbridge Piano & Organ Company – c. 1901
Architectural Photos, Uxbridge, Ontario
30 Franklin Street – Halbert Hardy House – A. S. Hardy, tuner – c. 1875 – Second Empire style – mansard roof, window hoods
Architectural Photos, Uxbridge, Ontario
54 Cedar Street North – Harvey and Martha Gould House – c. 1877 – T-shaped 1½ storey white brick house built by Joseph Gould (merchant and miller). In 1886 it was purchased by Harvey Gould a former Mayor of Uxbridge, County Warden.
Architectural Photos, Uxbridge, Ontario
The Thomas Foster Memorial Temple, erected in 1935-36 by the former mayor of Toronto, is situated a short distance north of town. Inspired by Foster’s visit to India, the Temple was designed by architects J.H. Craig (1889–1954) and H.H. Madrill (1889–1998).
Architectural Photos, Leaskdale, Ontario
#690 – Leaskdale – Gothic
Architectural Photos, Goodwood, Ontario
286 Highway 47, Goodwood – Ontario Gothic Cottage

Uxbridge, Ontario – Book 1 – in Colour Photos – My Top 9 Picks

Uxbridge, Ontario – Book 1

Uxbridge is a township in the Regional Municipality of Durham in south-central Ontario and is located about forty kilometers northeast of Metropolitan Toronto. The main center in the township is the community of Uxbridge. Other communities within the township include Coppins Corners, Goodwood, Leaskdale, Sandford, Siloam, Victoria’s Corner, and Zephyr.

It was named for Uxbridge, England, a name which was derived from “Wixan’s Bridge”.

The first settlers in the area were Quakers who started arriving in 1806 from Pennsylvania. The community’s oldest building, the Uxbridge Friends Meeting House, was built in 1820 and overlooks the town from Quaker Hill, a kilometer to the west.

The first passenger-carrying narrow-gauge railway in North America, the Toronto and Nipissing Railway arrived in Uxbridge in June 1871, and for over a decade Uxbridge was the headquarters of the railway. In 1872, the Village of Uxbridge was separated from the Township and incorporated as a separate entity.

With the creation of the Regional Municipality of Durham in 1974, Uxbridge Township was amalgamated with the Town of Uxbridge and Scott Township to create an expanded Township of Uxbridge.

Today, Uxbridge is as a mostly suburban community in northern Durham Region. Major manufacturing employers include Pine Valley Packaging (packaging, containers and portable shelters), Koch-Glitsch Canada (mass transfer systems) and Hela Canada (spice and ingredient manufacture). Many residents commute to other centers in Durham and York Regions and beyond.

Architectural Photos, Uxbridge, Ontario
169 Brock Street West – Jones House – Town Constable – c. 1876 – Gothic Revival with verge board trim and finial on gable
Architectural Photos, Uxbridge, Ontario
At the southeast corner of Brock and Toronto Streets stands the Uxbridge Public Library (c. 1887). It was beautifully restored in 1985. Uxbridge’s citizen, Joseph Gould, commissioned it as a Mechanics’ Institute and John T. Stokes of Sharon was the probable architect. It is in the High Victorian Gothic style of architecture which is reflected in its picturesque roofline, impressive clock tower and lavish attention to detail such as projecting brick courses, buttresses, bricks set in a diagonal pattern, decorative red brick, ornate chimneys and dropped brick keystones over the windows.
Architectural Photos, Uxbridge, Ontario
22 Brock Street East – Gothic – dichromatic brickwork
Architectural Photos, Uxbridge, Ontario
35 Brock Street East – patterning in gable, decorative cornice and brackets, arched windows and voussoirs, banding
Architectural Photos, Uxbridge, Ontario
112 Brock Street East – This house was built in 1871 by Samuel Umphrey, a prominent Uxbridge Businessman, who played an important role in the Uxbridge Cabinet Organ Factory. This Victorian house has a fine example of bargeboard, spool work and fretwork.
Architectural Photos, Uxbridge, Ontario
55 Dominion Street – Thomas & Lucy Chapple House, Barrister & MPP – c. 1885 – fish scale patterning in gable, decorative cornice and brackets, rounded double windows with voussoirs, banding
Architectural Photos, Uxbridge, Ontario
50 Dominion Street – wraparound verandah, verge board trim on gable, two-story square tower
Architectural Photos, Uxbridge, Ontario
23 First Avenue – c. 1888 – David Thirsk (carpenter) purchased the lot in 1887 and built this Gothic Revival two-storey yellow bricked home with a coursed fieldstone basement. In 1908 it was purchased by W.H. Brownscombe who was in the Boot and Shoe business. There is a widow’s walk with iron cresting on the rooftop.
Architectural Photos, Uxbridge, Ontario
41 First Avenue – The 1½ story Ontario Cottage style Wheler House was built in 1860 by Edward Wheler at the northwest corner of Brock and Main Street with the lumber coming from the local mill owned by George Wheler. It was moved to its present location by Ira G. Crosby in 1871. He was the Town Treasurer for many years.

Oshawa, Ontario – Book 3 – in Colour Photos – My Top 7 Picks

Oshawa, Ontario – Book 3

Oshawa is a city in Southern Ontario on the Lake Ontario shoreline. It is about sixty kilometers east of Downtown Toronto. The name Oshawa comes from the Ojibwa word meaning “the crossing place” or “where we must leave our canoes”. More than 5,000 people work and more than 2,400 university students study in the downtown core.

Oshawa’s roots are tied to the automobile industry with the Canadian division of General Motors located here. It was founded in 1876 as the McLaughlin Carriage Company. The lavish home of the carriage company’s founder, Parkwood Estate, is a National Historic Site of Canada.

In 1822, a “colonization road” (a north-south road to facilitate settlement) known as Simcoe Street was constructed. It ran from the harbor to the area of Lake Scugog. It intersected the “Kingston Road: at what became Oshawa’s “Four Corners.”

In 1846 there were about 1,000 people in a community surrounded by farms. There were three churches, a post office, various types of tradesmen, a foundry, a grist mill and a fulling mill, a brewery, two distilleries, a machine shop and four cabinet makers.

In 1876, Robert Samuel McLaughlin, Sr. moved his carriage works to Oshawa from Enniskillen to take advantage of its harbor and of the availability of a rail link not too far away. He constructed a two-storey building, which was soon added to. This building was heavily remodeled in 1929, receiving a new facade and being extended to the north. Around 1890, the carriage works relocated from its Simcoe Street address to an unused furniture factory a couple of blocks to the northeast, and this remained its site until the building burnt in 1899. Offered assistance by the town, McLaughlin chose to stay in Oshawa, building a new factory across Mary Street from the old site. Rail service had been provided in 1890 by the Oshawa Railway; this was originally set up as a streetcar line, but by about 1910 a second freight line was built slightly to the east of Simcoe Street which provided streetcar and freight service, connected central Oshawa with the Grand Trunk (now Canadian National) Railway, and with the Canadian Northern (which ran through the very north of Oshawa) and the Canadian Pacific, built in 1912-13.

Architectural Photos, Oshawa, Ontario
18 Aberdeen Street – dormer, centered door
Architectural Photos, Oshawa, Ontario
43 Connaught Street – patterned brickwork, bay window
Architectural Photos, Oshawa, Ontario
55 Connaught Street – J.H. Beaton House – c. 1928 – Tudor style
Architectural Photos, Oshawa, Ontario
62 Connaught Street – 1923 – Georgian style, centered door with open pediment, transom, multi-paned windows, banding
Architectural Photos, Oshawa, Ontario
99 Connaught Street – shed dormer, pediment, sidelights
Architectural Photos, Oshawa, Ontario
417 Mary Street North – bay window
Architectural Photos, Oshawa, Ontario
342 Mary Street North – 1920 – Gothic, corner quoins, contrasting voussoirs and lintels

Oshawa, Ontario – Book 2 – in Colour Photos – My Top 4 Picks

Oshawa, Ontario – Book 2

Oshawa is a city in Southern Ontario on the Lake Ontario shoreline. It is about sixty kilometers east of Downtown Toronto. The name Oshawa comes from the Ojibwa word meaning “the crossing place” or “where we must leave our canoes”. More than 5,000 people work and more than 2,400 university students study in the downtown core.

Oshawa’s roots are tied to the automobile industry with the Canadian division of General Motors located here. It was founded in 1876 as the McLaughlin Carriage Company. The lavish home of the carriage company’s founder, Parkwood Estate, is a National Historic Site of Canada.

Historians believe that Oshawa began as a transfer point for the fur trade. Beaver and other animals trapped for their pelts by local natives were traded with the Coureurs des bois (voyagers). Furs were loaded onto canoes by the Mississauga Indians at the Oshawa harbor and transported to the trading posts located to the west at the mouth of the Credit River. Around 1760, the French constructed a trading post near the harbor location; this was abandoned after a few years, but its ruins provided shelter for the first residents of what later became Oshawa.

In 1822, a “colonization road” (a north-south road to facilitate settlement) known as Simcoe Street was constructed. It ran from the harbor to the area of Lake Scugog. It intersected the “Kingston Road: at what became Oshawa’s “Four Corners.”

The newly established village became an industrial center, and implement works, tanneries, asheries and wagon factories opened. In 1876, Robert Samuel McLaughlin, Sr. moved his carriage works to Oshawa from Enniskillen to take advantage of its harbor and of the availability of a rail link not too far away. He constructed a two-story building, which was soon added to. This building was heavily remodeled in 1929, receiving a new facade and being extended to the north. Around 1890, the carriage works relocated from its Simcoe Street address to an unused furniture factory a couple of blocks to the northeast, and this remained its site until the building burnt in 1899. Offered assistance by the town, McLaughlin chose to stay in Oshawa, building a new factory across Mary Street from the old site. Rail service had been provided in 1890 by the Oshawa Railway; this was originally set up as a streetcar line, but by about 1910 a second freight line was built slightly to the east of Simcoe Street which provided streetcar and freight service, connected central Oshawa with the Grand Trunk (now Canadian National) Railway, and with the Canadian Northern (which ran through the very north of Oshawa) and the Canadian Pacific, built in 1912-13.

Architectural Photos, Oshawa, Ontario
270 Simcoe Street North – Parkwood, McLaughlin Estate – Colonel Robert Samuel McLaughlin and “Billy” Durant signed a 15-year contract in 1907, under which the McLaughlin Motor Company began to manufacture automobiles under the McLaughlin name, using Buick engines and other mechanical parts. Buick was merged into General Motors shortly after, and in 1915 the firm acquired the manufacturing rights to the Chevrolet brand. Within three years, the McLaughlin Motor Car Company and the Chevrolet Motor Car Company of Canada merged, creating General Motors of Canada in 1918 with McLaughlin as President. With the wealth he gained in his business venture, in 1916 McLaughlin built one of the stateliest homes in Canada, “Parkwood”. The 55-room residence was designed by Toronto architect John M. Lyle. McLaughlin lived in the house for 55 years with his wife and they raised five daughters. The house replaced an older mansion, which was about 30 years old when it was demolished; the grounds of the earlier home had been operated as Prospect Park, and this land was acquired by the town and became its first municipal park, Alexandra Park. Parkwood today is open to the public as a National Historic Site.
Architectural Photos, Oshawa, Ontario
301 Simcoe Street North – O’Neill Collegiate and Vocational Institute offers a wide range of academic and extracurricular activities. It is known as an art school, drawing many students from around the Greater Toronto Area into its arts programs. The science programs are well developed, with multiple fully functional science labs.
Architectural Photos, Oshawa, Ontario
377 Simcoe Street North – 1920 – Tudor style
Architectural Photos, Oshawa, Ontario
705 Simcoe Street North – McLaughlin estate Greenbriar – 1928 – Tudor style

Oshawa, Ontario – Book 1 – in Colour Photos – My Top 4 Picks

Oshawa, Ontario – Book 1

Oshawa is a city in Southern Ontario on the Lake Ontario shoreline. It is about sixty kilometers east of Downtown Toronto. The name Oshawa comes from the Ojibwa word meaning “the crossing place” or “where we must leave our canoes”. More than 5,000 people work and more than 2,400 university students study in the downtown core.

Oshawa’s roots are tied to the automobile industry with the Canadian division of General Motors located here. It was founded in 1876 as the McLaughlin Carriage Company. The lavish home of the carriage company’s founder, Parkwood Estate, is a National Historic Site of Canada.

Historians believe that Oshawa began as a transfer point for the fur trade. Beaver and other animals trapped for their pelts by local natives were traded with the Coureurs des bois (voyagers). Furs were loaded onto canoes by the Mississauga Indians at the Oshawa harbor and transported to the trading posts located to the west at the mouth of the Credit River. Around 1760, the French constructed a trading post near the harbor location; this was abandoned after a few years, but its ruins provided shelter for the first residents of what later became Oshawa.

In the late eighteenth century, a local resident, Roger Conant, started an export business shipping salmon to the United States. His success attracted further migration into the region. A large number of the founding immigrants were United Empire Loyalists, who left the United States to live under British rule. Later Irish and then French-Canadian immigration increased as did industrialization. Oshawa and the surrounding Ontario County were the settling grounds of a large number of nineteenth century Cornish immigrants. The surveys ordered by Governor John Graves Simcoe, and subsequent land grants, helped populate the area. When Col. Asa Danforth laid out his York-to-Kingston road, it passed through the Oshawa area.

In 1822, a “colonization road” (a north-south road to facilitate settlement) known as Simcoe Street was constructed. It ran from the harbor to the area of Lake Scugog. It intersected the “Kingston Road: at what became Oshawa’s “Four Corners.”

In 1846 there were about 1,000 people in a community surrounded by farms. There were three churches, a post office, and tradesmen of various types, a foundry, a grist mill and a fulling mill, a brewery, two distilleries, a machine shop and four cabinet makers. The newly established village became an industrial center, and implement works, tanneries, asheries and wagon factories opened. In 1876, Robert Samuel McLaughlin, Sr. moved his carriage works to Oshawa from Enniskillen to take advantage of its harbor and of the availability of a rail link not too far away. He constructed a two-storey building, which was soon added to. This building was heavily remodeled in 1929, receiving a new facade and being extended to the north. Around 1890, the carriage works relocated from its Simcoe Street address to an unused furniture factory a couple of blocks to the northeast, and this remained its site until the building burnt in 1899. Offered assistance by the town, McLaughlin chose to stay in Oshawa, building a new factory across Mary Street from the old site. Rail service had been provided in 1890 by the Oshawa Railway; this was originally set up as a streetcar line, but by about 1910 a second freight line was built slightly to the east of Simcoe Street which provided streetcar and freight service, connected central Oshawa with the Grand Trunk (now Canadian National) Railway, and with the Canadian Northern (which ran through the very north of Oshawa) and the Canadian Pacific, built in 1912-13.

Architectural Photos, Oshawa, Ontario
170 Simcoe Street South – 1925 – battlementing above three-story bay window on left
Architectural Photos, Oshawa, Ontario
120 Centre Street South – EA Lovell School – 1924
Architectural Photos, Oshawa, Ontario
91 Celina Street – c. 1890 – Gothic style – decorative drip molds with keystones around windows and doors
Architectural Photos, Oshawa, Ontario
39 Athol Street West – c. 1858 – Offices for St George’s Memorial Anglican Church – cornice brackets, second floor balcony above pillared entrance

Ajax and Pickering, Ontario in Colour Photos – My Top 11 Picks

Ajax and Pickering, Ontario

Ajax is a town in Durham Region in Southern Ontario, Canada, located in the eastern part of the Greater Toronto Area. The town is named for HMS Ajax, a Royal Navy cruiser that served in World War II. It is about twenty-five kilometers (16 miles) east of Toronto on the shores of Lake Ontario and is bordered by the City of Pickering to the west and north, and the Town of Whitby to the east.

Before the Second World War, Ajax was a rural part of the township of Pickering. The town was established in 1941 when a Defense Industries Limited (D.I.L.) shell plant was constructed and a town site grew around the plant. By 1945 the plant employed over 9,000 people at peak production. It had its own water and sewage treatment plants and fifty kilometers (31 miles) of railroad and 50 kilometers (31 miles) of roads. The entire D.I.L. plant site was about twelve square kilometers (5 square miles).

Pickering is a city located in Southern Ontario, east of Toronto in Durham Region. It was settled by British colonists starting in the 1770s. Many of the smaller rural communities have been preserved and function as provincially significant historic sites and museums.

Whitevale, formerly Majorville, is a community located within the City of Pickering. The community was first settled in the 1820s when John Major built a sawmill; there were many Majors living in the area. Around 1855 Truman P. White bought the saw mill, built a gristmill and a cooperage, and in 1866 built a planing factory. In 1867 he built a large four storey brick woolen mill. The community owed so much of its development and business prosperity to T.P. White that in acknowledgement, it adopted Whitevale as its permanent name. In 1855, Donald McPhee opened the first store.

In 1890 Whitevale contained a stave and heading factory and a barrel factory both owned and operated by the Spink brothers; three general stores, one owned by James Taylor and Donald McPhee; a wagon and carriage factory, operated by the Pollard brothers; a cheese factory, owned and operated by P.R. Hoover and Company; the merchant and tailoring firm of J. Rose and Son; the shoemaker shops of John Allen and D. Moodey; the butcher shop of Israel Burton and the tinsmith shop of S.B. Wigmore. In addition, Whitevale contained two blacksmiths, two wagon shops, a school house, undertakers, harness shop, grist mill, brush factory, grindstone factory, barber shop, three dressmakers, three gardeners, money order and post offices, hotel, brass band, two churches and four lodges.

The Whitevale Heritage Conservation District was established to ensure the preservation and enhancement of the special character of Whitevale. It is dominated by its rural setting and modest vernacular buildings; the hamlet has not changed significantly in character since the late 19th century. The building style in Whitevale is a mixture of typical rural Ontario vernacular architecture combined with Victorian influences and materials in common usage at the time of construction. The overall nineteenth century village character has been retained.

Architectural Photos, Ajax, Ontario
497 Kingston Road West – 1870 – purchased in 1882 by Dr. Field for his daughter. Dr. Field was a practicing physician in Pickering Village and later built his own home directly east of this property. In 1929, Emerson & Henrietta Bertrand purchased the home and raised Allan Irwin. The family gave up the homestead in 1934, only to have it reclaimed in 1977 by their grandson, B. B. Bertrand (son of Allan). The building is a 2½ storey brick structure in Italianate architecture.
Architectural Photos, Ajax, Ontario
543 Kingston Road West – dichromatic voussoirs, verge board trim on gables, cornice brackets
Architectural Photos, Ajax, Ontario
89 Church Street South – This home, built in 1877, has existed in its present configuration since 1937. It is the best-preserved frame house of Gothic Revival design within the Town of Ajax.
Architectural Photos, Ajax, Ontario
103 Old Kingston Road – dichromatic voussoirs
Architectural Photos, Ajax, Ontario
100 Old Kingston Road – twin two-storey capped towers
Architectural Photos, Ajax, Ontario
23 Elizabeth Street – This Gothic house was built in 1875. In 1980 the owners restored the tongue and grove pine wood facade. Other features include the decorative trim above the front gable and a second storey “suicide” door. Tradition says is was the first house equipped with inside plumbing and central heating – features installed to persuade a retired miller from Toronto to run the Spink’s Mill on nearby Duffin’s Creek during World War I.
Architectural Photos, Pickering, Ontario
1709 Highway 7 Road, Brougham – The Former Commercial Hotel in Brougham, Ontario is a two-storey brick building in the Gothic Revival style with a gable roof and has pointed arched windows in two dormers with finials and decorative wood fascia. It was initially built as a home and then converted into a hotel.
Architectural Photos, Pickering, Ontario
Bentley House was built in 1853-55 for William Bentley, a local businessman and founder of Brougham village. It remained in the Bentley family until 1959, when it was purchased and restored by the Gibson family. The site is now part of the proposed Pickering Airport. Bentley House, on its original four-acre site, is located at the intersection of the Brock Road and Highway 7. The Italianate style has two variations. The Tuscan Villa style reflects the Picturesque values of variety in silhouette and textures and intricacy in detail, while the Italian Palazzo form emphasizes the symmetry and tripartite composition typical of Renaissance buildings. The heritage character of Bentley House resides in its vernacular Italianate style, as evidenced by the combination of Renaissance massing with Picturesque expression in the materials and detailing. The Renaissance influence on the design of Bentley House is reflected in its symmetrical massing, shallow hip roof, regular arrangement of windows on all façades, and round-headed windows in the belvedere. Picturesque qualities are expressed in the variety of colors and textures of materials: stone foundation, polychrome red-and-buff brickwork, large multi-paned sash windows, and elaborate wood trim and wood belvedere. The emphasis on ornamentation typical of Italianate villas in the Picturesque tradition is reflected in the tracery of the segmentally-arched window in the gable, eave brackets and dentils on both the house and belvedere, paneled door casing with carved colonnettes in antis, carved porch pillars, window shutters, and prominent decorative chimneys.
Architectural Photos, Pickering, Ontario
1200 Whitevale Road – Gothic – verge board trim and finials on gables, banding, corner quoins, bay window
Architectural Photos, Pickering, Ontario
1200 Whitevale Road – Gothic – verge board trim and finials on gables, banding, corner quoins, bay window
Architectural Photos, Pickering, Ontario
Whitevale – 3180 Byron Street – two-storey frontispiece with fanlight in gable pediment, corner quoins, dormers, voussoirs with keystones, shutters, sidelights and fanlight about door and matching French window above porch

Whitby, Ontario – Book 2 – in Colour Photos – My Top 14 Picks

Whitby, Ontario – Book 2

First Nations people were the original inhabitants of the area that would become Brooklin. In the 1820s European pioneers established a small settlement in the area. The settlement expanded in the 1840s when brothers John and Robert Campbell established a flour mill on Lynde Creek. Most of the buildings in the area of the walking tour are single-detached houses. It is a diverse collection of traditional architectural styles from the mid-nineteenth to mid-twentieth centuries. These diverse styles complement the landscape as the spaces between buildings offer glimpses of the creek, small parks, and treed open spaces.

In 1819, John Scadding, clerk for Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe, was awarded a large tract of land now known as Port Whitby. Originally known as Port Windsor, the area encompassed the natural harbor in the south up to Victoria Street in the north. Soon after settlement, the harbor was used to ship local grain, lumber, and farm produce across Canada and the United States. Farmers transported their produce to Port Windsor using a plank toll road, now Brock Street, and the Port Whitby, Port Perry, and Lindsay Railway. From the 1840s to the 1870s, Windsor Harbour prospered, leading to a number of developments that modernized the harbor’s infrastructure and surrounding industry. It was also during this time, in 1847, that Windsor Harbour was officially renamed Whitby Harbour. The bustling community of Port Whitby sprung up around the harbor with a number of houses, hotels, shops, and breweries supporting further development. Port Whitby, including the harbor, was one of three communities that formed the original Town of Whitby in 1855 along with Hamer’s Corners and Perry’s Corners.

Architectural Photos, Whitby, Ontario
44 Baldwin Street – c. 1914 – 2½ storey frame residential building in the Edwardian Classic style, brick cladding, hip gable roof, L-shape with a wing projecting from the main block gable end to the street, a flat-roofed verandah with open porch above
Architectural Photos, Whitby, Ontario
56 Baldwin Street – c. 1872 – 2½ storey, gable roof, Gothic Revival influences, decorative brick drip mouldings over windows, decorative brick band courses, foundation and pilasters at corners – Royal Canadian Legion
Architectural Photos, Whitby, Ontario
58 Baldwin Street – c. 1881 – 3 storey Dutch gabled brick commercial building with Gothic Revival influences, decorative brick drip moldings on second storey windows, decorative brick sills, decorative brick medallions over first storey signboard
Architectural Photos, Whitby, Ontario
3 Cassels Road East – c. 1889 – 2½ storey frame gable roofed Victorian vernacular home was built by Charles Grass and owned by the Grass family until 1950. For many years he operated, but did not own the mill. The main block has the gable end to street, with a 1½ storey wing to the east and a projecting gable roofed bay to the west, clapboard siding, fish scale siding on gable end, decorative cornice and brackets on verandah, stained glass over first storey window.
Architectural Photos, Whitby, Ontario
25 Cassels Road East – c. 1848 – The Brooklin Brick Mill was built for John Campbell after the original frame mill (1840) was destroyed by fire. The cedar swamp that originally covered the site was filled so that the foundation could be built on solid ground. The date is still visible on the west side gable. The mill could produce 50 barrels of flour a day and operated as a flour mill for 149 years, ceasing operation in 1991.
Architectural Photos, Whitby, Ontario
31 Cassels Road East – Early 21st century 2½ storey frame complex gable roofed residential building with eclectic late 19th century stylistic influences (mansarded central bay, turreted and gabled side bays, projecting bay windows, Palladian windows
Architectural Photos, Whitby, Ontario
57 Cassels Road East – c. 1848 – Gothic Revival style, central entrance way within a flat roofed enclosed porch, Gothic-arched window above, decorative barge board and finial
Architectural Photos, Whitby, Ontario
1 Princess Street – c. 1857 – 1½ storey brick gable roofed residential building, with a slightly offset central entrance way flanked by two windows, buff brick cornices on windows and door and quoins
Architectural Photos, Whitby, Ontario
11 Princess Street – c. 1943 – stone and brick hip gable roofed house – It has a tapestry brickwork pattern with an ashlar stone pattern (square cut building stones) on the street façade. Arthur James Cook, a Township Councillor in 1933/34, built the house after retiring from his business as a butcher shop owner.
Architectural Photos, Whitby, Ontario
15 Princess Street – Benjamin Franklin Campbell House – c. 1877 – Gothic Revival style, large gable end block with a recessed block to the south, bay window, 2-over-2 curved top windows, ornamental white brick lintels and quoins, wooden shutters, paneled wood and glass main and secondary doors, decorative barge boarding on the porch and roof gable
Architectural Photos, Whitby, Ontario
21 Princess Street – 1895 – Queen Anne style, engaged tower, chevron pattern shingles on west gable and basket weave pattern on the tower, balcony and verandah wooden railings
Architectural Photos, Whitby, Ontario
23 Princess Street – 1879 – Gothic Revival style, with a central entrance paneled wooden door with top light contained in a round-headed paneled wooden door surround with decorative brick lintel/drip molding, flanked by two 2/2 elongated windows with similar lintels, under a shed roofed full width porch supported by turned wooden posts on brick plinths, with three similar windows in the second storey above, with the central window centered under a roof gable. It was built as a Methodist parsonage by A.P. Cameron; it cost $1,700 to construct. In 1917, it became one of the first buildings to be wired for electricity in Brooklin.
Architectural Photos, Whitby, Ontario
24 Princess Street – c. 1935 – This house was built by Dr. John Moore who came to Brooklin in 1891 and was a doctor here for 46 years. He was Reeve of Whitby Township from 1912-14 and served on the Brooklin School Board. The English cross bond brick pattern is rare to see and would have been expensive to produce. Central entrance way with glazed top and side lights under a slightly projecting bracketed curving wooden lintel, flanked by 6/6 double windows in the first and second storeys, with a 3/3 double window above, three eyebrow dormers with shallow windows.
Architectural Photos, Whitby, Ontario
90 Colston Avenue – Stephen Thomas House – c. 1858 – 2½ storey brick gable roofed building with Gothic Revival influences – best surviving mansion and grounds from the early days of the village