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Burford, Ontario in Colour Photos Book 2 – My Top 8 Picks

Burford is in the County of Brant and is located eight kilometers west of the City of Brantford along Highway 53, and seventy kilometers east of London.

 In 1793 Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe granted to Abraham Dayton the entire Township of Burford. Dayton was a native of Milford, Connecticut. The township was to become the “new Jerusalem” for a religious sect with which he was affiliated. Dayton broke his ties with the sect and settled just west of the present village of Burford. He was responsible for bringing several families into the township and by the spring of 1797 the new settlement consisted of twenty-one families. Abraham Dayton died March 1, 1797 after a prolonged illness. Abigail Dayton, Abraham’s widow, later married Colonel Joel Stone and moved to Gananoque where she lived until her death in 1843 at the age of 93.The Dayton’s only child, Abiah, was the wife of Benajah Mallory and she and her husband followed her parents into this township. Benajah Mallory became a man of considerable influence and by 1805 was elected Member of the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada representing Norfolk, Oxford, and Middlesex. In June 1812, war was declared against Upper Canada by the United States. During the course of the war, Mallory accepted a commission in the U.S. forces and was considered a traitor back home. Benajah Mallory became outlawed and his land was forfeited to the Crown.

John Yeigh, his wife Mary and their children Jacob, John Junior, Adam,Henry and Eva arrived in Burford from Pennsylvania by covered wagon in June1800. The family cleared land, farmed and established the first pottery in the Burford area. Jacob and Adam distinguished themselves in the War of 1812 and were also active participants in the 1837 Rebellion.

Mount Vernon was originally named Springfield and subsequently Chequered Sheds because the posts were painted in black and white checkerboard fashion to mark several parking spots for rigs at the hotel across from Kenny’s Store. The present name, according to oral history, was given by a railway company in honor of the home of George Washington, the first president of the United States.

Thomas Perrin laid out the village. He established the first store in 1835, built the first sawmill in 1840 and the first gristmill in 1845.

Bishopsgate is located on Highway 53 between Mount Vernon and Burford.

Langford is located on Highway 2/53 east of Fairchild’s Creek about three kilometers east of Cainsville. The village was named for Jacob Lang, an early settler who came from Pennsylvania to this area bout 1807. United Empire Loyalists settled here in the late 1700s. Several streams flowing south gave power to saw and grist mills in the area. A brickyard and a blacksmith shop were established here. The first post office was called Lang’s Ford as all of the travelers had to ford the swampy stream in the hollow just east of Jacob Lang’s farm. Later the name was changed to Langford.

Architectural Photos, Burford, Ontario
280 Maple Avenue South – built in Neo-Classic style by W. H. Metcalf – hipped roof, cornice brackets, raised corner quoins; Metcalf Family Crest carved in the wall
Architectural Photos, Burford, Ontario
358 Maple Avenue South – Italianate – dichromatic brickwork on corners
Architectural Photos, Burford, Ontario
363 Maple Avenue South – built in the Queen Anne style by George Holt with a wraparound porch with wooden pillars. The upper storey has a bay window with one gable and cornice returns and rounded windows. There is decorative fretting under the eaves.
Architectural Photos, Burford, Ontario
374 Maple Avenue South – cornice brackets, corner quoins
Architectural Photos, Burford, Ontario
114 Fairfield Road – 1891 – Jacob Williams built this house of red brick with a slate roof, beautiful stained glass windows and decorative brickwork over and under the windows. Front and side porches are original.
Architectural Photos, Burford, Ontario
212 Bishopsgate Road – corner quoins, verge board trim on gable, second floor balcony
Architectural Photos, Burford, Ontario
270 Bishopsgate Road – This Georgian house has elaborate porch arches and gingerbread with intricate fretwork. The windows are six over six panes.
Architectural Photos, Burford, Ontario
300 Bishopsgate Road – 1860 – This house has a beautiful field stone façade with extensive use of finely dressed limestone quoins, lintels and window labels.

Burford, Ontario in Colour Photos – My Top 9 Picks

Burford, Ontario in Colour Photos – My Top 9 Picks

Burford is in the County of Brant and is located eight kilometers west of the City of Brantford along Highway 53, and seventy kilometers east of London.

In 1793 Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe granted to Abraham Dayton the entire Township of Burford. Dayton was a native of Milford, Connecticut. The township was to become the “new Jerusalem” for a religious sect with which he was affiliated. Dayton broke his ties with the sect and settled just west of the present village of Burford. He was responsible for bringing several families into the township and by the spring of 1797 the new settlement consisted of twenty-one families. Abraham Dayton died March 1, 1797 after a prolonged illness. Abigail Dayton, Abraham’s widow, later married Colonel Joel Stone and moved to Gananoque where she lived until her death in 1843 at the age of 93. The Dayton’s only child, Abiah, was the wife of Benajah Mallory and she and her husband followed her parents into this township. Benajah Mallory became a man of considerable influence and by 1805 was elected Member of the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada representing Norfolk, Oxford, and Middlesex. In June 1812, war was declared against Upper Canada by the United States. During the course of the war, Mallory accepted a commission in the U.S. forces and was considered a traitor back home. Benajah Mallory became outlawed and his land was forfeited to the Crown.

John Yeigh, his wife Mary and their children Jacob, John Junior, Adam, Henry and Eva arrived in Burford from Pennsylvania by covered wagon in June 1800. The family cleared land, farmed and established the first pottery in the Burford area. Jacob and Adam distinguished themselves in the War of 1812 and were also active participants in the 1837 Rebellion.

Architecural Photos, Burford, Ontario

306 Highway 53 – Farrington House – 1883 – built by James Farrington – Italianate style with buff brick, decorative red string course and arches over the Roman style windows. The original front and side porches have gingerbread trim. James Farrington traveled to California during the gold rush as was involved in many successful business enterprises including ranching, gold and silver mining and high plains freighting

Architecural Photos, Burford, Ontario

378 West Quarter Townline Road – Heritage Property – This house has Roman influenced windows with alternating brick to simulate quoining and geometric shapes such as diamonds in the apex of the gable ends. It has three gable ends and both a front and side porch.

Architecural Photos, Burford, Ontario

110 King Street – Dr. Hervey Ross House – 1851 – It is usually called “The Miller House” and is a rare example of a Regency winged temple building. It is called a “winged plan” because it has a one and a half storey central body with flanking one-storey wings. Decorative features are fancy verge board along the front gable and French casement style windows.

Architecural Photos, Burford, Ontario

126 King Street – Post Office – A.D. 1914 – Two-storey smooth red brick structure has ashlar stone lintels and string courses at the window liens. It is sometimes called Edwardian in style because it was built during the reign of King Edward VII. The clock tower is a landmark for the business district.

Architectural Photos, Burford, Ontario

150 King Street – Armoury – 1906 – The central tower has a Roman arched window and Gothic detail as well as battlementing. The double front doors have a stained glass transom. It was used by the 1st Cavalry 2nd 10th Brant Dragoons for training and recreation. It served as a hospital during the flu epidemic of 1918 and a temporary high school in 1921. During the War of 1812, Burford became an important post, being located between Ancaster and Detroit. The military parade ground was located on this property and occupied most of what is now the residential block between William and Jarvis Streets.

Architectural Photos, Burford, Ontario

155 King Street – Heritage Property – c. 1835 – Sprowl House – Doric columns support a sleeper veranda used on hot summer nights. The six over six windows are original. This is the former home of A.D. Muir who was active in the militia and joined the Burford Troop of Cavalry in 1881. In 1813, following the defeat of the Canadians at the battle of Moraviantown (west of London), General Proctor persuaded a group of nearly 3000 native warriors and their families to retreat with him to a powerful for, which he claimed to be at Burford. Some of this group encamped her (across from the military parade grounds) while the rest of the group was located west of the village by the creek.

Architecural Photos, Burford, Ontario

158 King Street – dormers, iron cresting around second floor balcony

Architecural Photos, Burford, Ontario

159 King Street – 1888 – Gothic, iron cresting around second floor balcony, cornice brackets, stenciling and decorative veranda pillars, bay window on end of house

Architecural Photos, Burford, Ontario

55 Maple Avenue North – Stuart House – 1886 – was built by Elijah Stuart in the Georgian Symmetry style with Italianate features, segmental arched windows, double brackets under the eaves and quoining on the corners. The double-hung front door has a fanlight and the second floor door has a keystone arch linking the same color detail line across the front of the house.

St. George, Ontario – Book 2 in Colour Photos – My Top 15 Picks

St. George, Ontario – Book 2 in Colour Photos – My Top 15 Picks

The County of Brant is located at the mid-point of the Grand River as it flows south from Luther Marsh to Lake Erie.

In 1852 the City of Brantford, the Village of Paris, and the Townships of Brantford, Oakland, Onondaga, South Dumfries, and Burford became Brant County.

Two hundred years ago, Obed Wilson ventured forth seeking an area in Upper Canada in which to settle. He discovered a place with fertile land, sparkling water and natural beauty which enticed him to stay and build a log cabin. Eventually the vision grew into the Village of St. George.

St. George, located to the north of the City of Brantford, is in the Township of South Dumfries. It was founded in 1814. John and Peter Bauslaugh were early settlers in St. George, and the early name of the village was “Bauslaugh Mills” in honor of John Bauslaugh who owned a sawmill near Highway 99. Main Street began to develop in the 1820s when Henry Moe began selling fish and dry goods from the first log building. By 1832, the village had three churches and several businesses. Today Main Street continues to thrive with many of the original buildings from the 1800s attracting people to the antique shops, cafes and restaurants.

The community around Bethel Road with Rest Acres Road to the east and Bishopsgate Road to the west was settled in the 1830s. The major industry in this area was farming. Some of its first settlers were the Gurneys, McAllisters (wagon maker), Aulsebrooks, Lovetts and Major Arnold Burrowes whose 1,000 acre estate was known as Strathmore. On his estate Major Burrowes constructed a mill dam, stock pens, hop mill, a distillery, a grist mill and a plaster mill.

The Township of Oakland includes the towns of Scotland and Oakland. It has a rich history.

Scotland is located on the Burford/Oakland township line. The village was surveyed and laid out by Eliakim Malcolm. The first hotel opened in 1830, the first story in 1837 and the first post office in 1855. Malcolm’s Creek had enough waterpower to sustain several industries such as a woolen mill, gristmill, tannery and foundry. Other early industries were a cooperage, a wagon and carriage works, carriage and buggy works and a starch factory. Two doctors and a lawyer practiced in Scotland in the mid-1800s.

The Village of Oakland is located three kilometers east of Scotland on the Oakland Road. Oakland was named for a ridge of oak trees that ran through it. In 1850, the first municipal office was at the Oakland Post Office. A town hall was built in 1854 and Council met there until the early 1900s. Oakland had a grist mill in 1806, saw mill in 1807, a cheese factory, cider mill, three general stores, a shoemaker, harness maker, and a hotel.

Oakland is the site of the Battle of Malcolm Mills which was the last land battle of the War of 1812 on Canadian soil against an official foreign power. The battle took place at the stream that runs through Lion’s Park. In October 1814, an invading American force of about seven hundred men under Brigadier-General Duncan McArthur advanced rapidly up the Thames Valley. He intended to devastate the Grand River settlements and the region around the head of Lake Ontario, which supplied British forces on the Niagara Frontier. McArthur reached the Grand, and after an unsuccessful attempt to force a crossing, attacked a body of about one hundred and fifty militia at Malcom’s Mills (Oakland) on November 6th. Canadian forces put up a spirited resistance but were overwhelmed.

Architectural Photos, St. George, Ontario

356 St. George Road – hipped roof with dormers

Architectural Photos, St. George, Ontario

125 McLean School Road – Italianate, cornice brackets, two-storey bay window, corner quoins

Architectural Photos, St. George, Ontario

86 McLean School Road – Smith I. Wait House – circa 1875 – High Victorian and Italianate – three layers of brick for the main part of the house and a two-feet thick stone foundation – cornice brackets, corner quoins, bay window

Architectural Photos, St. George, Ontario

380 Branchton Road – Mayhill Villa/Lewis C. Cope Residence – circa 1867 – Italianate – half-round windows, two sets of original compound chimneys, hipped roof, paired cornice brackets, corner quoins; etched stained glass in the fanlight and sidelights provide an attractive entry

Architectural Photos, St. George, Ontario

Glen Morris Road East – cut stone railway bridge constructed in 1854 by the Great Western Railway Company over Glen Morris Road East to link Harrisburg with Galt. It is a beautiful example of masonry work with its double arches with keystones which allow both the road and stream to pass under it.

Architectural Photos, St. George, Ontario

254 Glen Morris Road East – Italianate – two-storey frontispiece, verge board trim and finial on gable, cornice brackets, corner quoins, dentil molding, fanlight

Architectural Photos Ontario

359 Regional Road 35 (Blue Lake Road) – circa 1830 – Neo-Gothic style farmhouse – Adelaide Hoodless was born here in St. George, the youngest of twelve children. Her father died a few months after her birth. Her mother, Jane Hamilton Hunter, was left to manage the farm and a large household. Perhaps the hard work and isolation of her youth inspired Adelaide to take up the cause of domestic reform years later. After her schooling in a one-room schoolhouse, she stayed with her sister Lizzie while attending ‘Ladies College’ in Brantford, Ontario. While there, she met John Hoodless who was also the close friend of her sister Lizzie’s future husband, Seth Charlton. John Hoodless was the only surviving son of a successful Hamilton furniture manufacturer (Joseph Hoodless). Adelaide married John Hoodless and moved to Hamilton. Adelaide and John had four children: Edna, Muriel, Bernard and John Harold.

Architectural Photos, Bethel Road, Ontario

Bethel Road – Gothic – verge board trim on gable

Architectural Photos, Bethel Road, Ontario

Bethel Road – multi-colored stone

Architectural Photos, St. George, Ontario

308 Robinson Road – Apps Mill – 1846 – The Apps family operated it as a flour mill using Whiteman Creek for power until 1959 when hurricane Hazel flooded the entire bottom floor. It has horizontal wood siding and six over six windows.

Architectural Photos, Oakland, Ontario

154 Oakland Road – Oakland United Church – (Methodist Church – 1886) – Gothic Revival, lancet windows, dichromatic brickwork, buttresses

Architectural Photos, Oakland, Ontario

129 Oakland Road, Oakland – Built by Mordecai Westbrook, a member of one of the original families of Oakland. Georgian style with original double hung six over six windows and shutters. The walls are triple-bricked with bricks said to have been made on site. The widow’s walk and rear stone coach house are both original.

Architectural Photos, Oakland, Ontario

Oakland Road, Oakland, Ontario

Architectural Photos, Scotland, Ontario

Oakland Road, Scotland – dichromatic brickwork

Architectural Photos, Scotland, Ontario

27 Talbot Street – 1890 – is an early Queen Anne style featuring a wraparound veranda with elaborate scroll work, spool work and patterned brick work with a string course at the frieze. Rusticated brick is used to ornament the principal window drip mold. Cornice return around the dormer bulls-eye window.

St. George, Ontario – Book 1 in Colour Photos – My Top 12 Picks

St. George, Ontario – Book 1 in Colour Photos – My Top 12 Picks

The County of Brant is located at the mid-point of the Grand River as it flows south from Luther Marsh to Lake Erie. In Brant, the river flows through an area of rich farmland and Carolinian forest. The river was used for water power and transportation. European settlers first arrived in Burford Township in 1793 and began to settle in the rest of the County soon after.

In 1852 the City of Brantford, the Village of Paris, and the Townships of Brantford, Oakland, Onondaga, South Dumfries, and Burford became Brant County.

Two hundred years ago, Obed Wilson ventured forth seeking an area in Upper Canada in which to settle. He discovered a place with fertile land, sparkling water and natural beauty which enticed him to stay and build a log cabin. Eventually the vision grew into the Village of St. George.

St. George, located to the north of the City of Brantford, is in the Township of South Dumfries. It was founded in 1814. John and Peter Bauslaugh were early settlers in St. George, and the early name of the village was “Bauslaugh Mills” in honor of John Bauslaugh who owned a sawmill near Highway 99. Main Street began to develop in the 1820s when Henry Moe began selling fish and dry goods from the first log building. By 1832, the village had three churches and several businesses. Today Main Street continues to thrive with many of the original buildings from the 1800s attracting people to the antique shops, cafes and restaurants.

Architectural Photos, St. George, Ontario

6 Thompson Street – Two Roses Bed & Breakfast – Italianate – bay window with balcony, corner quoins

Architectural Photos, St. George, Ontario

21 West Street – Gothic Revival – iron cresting above bay window

Architectural Photos, St. George, Ontario

Beverly Street West – Gothic – dichromatic brickwork, corner quoins, voussoirs

Architectural Photos, St. George, Ontario

69 Beverly Street West – 2nd floor balcony

Architectural Photos, St. George, Ontario

39 Beverly Street West – St. George School – 1893 – It remained in use as a school until another one was built behind it in 1973. Today, a nursery school and day care center operate here.

Architectural Photos, St. George, Ontario

41 Main Street South – Snowball Grist Mill – 1871 – William Snowball began construction of this cut and dressed stone flour mill in 1869. In the summer of 1885, steam power was added and alterations were made 6that enabled the mill to turn out two hundred barrels of flour per day. It operated as St. George Feed & Seed Mill from 1967 to 1993.

Architectural Photos, St. George, Ontario

23 Main Street South

Architectural Photos, St. George, Ontario

34-36 Main Street South – Howell Block – 1891 – Alternating quoins on the corners of the building and ornamental arches with center keystones over the windows are of contrasting color. Since 1924, the stone building has housed the post office, library and space for community groups. Now it is the home of the South Dumfries Historical Society.

Architectural Photos, St. George, Ontario

13 Main Street South – Sunnyside – c. 1888 – was constructed by Dr. E.E. Kitchen. It was the heartbeat of Main Street. It was the home of the inaugural meeting of the St. George Women’s Institute, January 13, 1903. This Romanesque Revival mansion was built as a residence and doctor’s office. On the third floor there was a ballroom.

Architectural Photos, St. George, Ontario

High Street – Italianate – two-storey frontispiece, corner quoins, cornice brackets, voussoirs

Architectural Photos, St. George, Ontario

18 Beverly Street East – Italianate – paired cornice brackets, dentil molding, corner quoins, dichromatic brickwork

Architectural Photos, St. George, Ontario

19 Beverly Street East – Gothic – paired cornice brackets, corner quoins, bay window

Paris, Ontario – Book 3 in Colour Photos – My Top 13 Picks

Paris, Ontario – Book 3 in Colour Photos – My Top 13 Picks

Paris, Ontario is located on the Grand River. It was first settled by Hiram Capron a native of Vermont who, in 1822, emigrated to Norfolk County where he helped to establish one of Upper Canada’s earliest iron foundries. He settled here at the Forks of the Grand (where the Grand and Nith Rivers meet) in 1829, divided part of his land into town lots, and in 1830 constructed a grist-mill and named the town after the gypsum deposits that were mined nearby. Gypsum is used to make plaster of Paris.

Records from 1846 indicate that the settlement, in a hilly area called Oak Plains, was divided into the upper town and the lower town. In addition to successful farmers in the area, the community of 1,000 people (Americans, Scottish, English, and Irish) was thriving. Manufacturing had already begun, with industries powered by the river. A great deal of plaster was being exported and there were three mills, a tannery, a woolen factory, a foundry, and many tradesmen. Five churches had been built; and the post office was receiving mail three times a week.

While the telephone was invented at Brantford, Ontario in 1874, Alexander Graham Bell made the first transmission to a distance between Brantford and Paris on August 3, 1876.

The use of cobblestones to construct buildings was introduced to the area by Levi Boughton when he erected St. James Church in 1839; this was the first cobblestone structure in Paris. Two churches and ten homes, all in current use, are made of numerous such stones taken from the rivers. Other architectural styles that are visible in the downtown area include Edwardian, Gothic and Post Modern.

The Township of South Dumfries is situated in the north part of the County of Brant. The earliest settlements were in and around the Village of St. George. Two vital factors of the area which caused settlers to locate here were flowing wells and excellent farm land.

The first establishments in the township were a grist mill in 1817, a distillery in 1818, a grocery store in 1820, a log school in 1823, and a post office in 1833. The first church was opened as a Baptist Church in 1824. The Village of Harrisburg was laid out in 1855 at the junction of the Wellington, Grey &* Bruce and Great Western railways. Glen Morris was laid out in 1q848 on the banks of the Grand River twelve miles from Brantford.

Harrisburg

In the mid-1800s, Harrisburg was a stop on the Great Western Railway serving as a shipping point for St. George and area. About 1854, a branch line twelve miles long from Harrisburg to Galt opened and Harrisburg got its first train station. In 1882, the Great Western Railway was absorbed by the Grand Trunk Railway.

Glen Morris

The village of Glen Morris is on both sides of the Grand River with most of the historical buildings on the east side along East River Road. Glen Morris was first known as Dawson’s Bridge as it was John Dawson who built a sawmill and bridge in 1833 across the Grand River. In 1840, the settlement was renamed Middleton. Samuel Latshaw laid out the village in 1848 and in 1851 it was named Glen Morris in honor of their Postmaster.

Architectural Photos, Paris, Ontario

Baird Street – Gothic style with verge board trim on chipped gables, cobblestone pillars supporting verandah

Architectural Photos, Paris, Ontario

87 Willow Street – Second Empire style – mansard roof, tall windows, dormers

Architectural Photos, Paris, Ontario

51 St. Andrew Street – Regency Cottage

Architectural Photos, Paris, Ontario

33 Oak Avenue – 1854 – built by David Patton and his wife Matilda (Killips) Patton – 1½-storey Gothic Revival style of cobblestone and field stone construction. The main façade fable is decorated with gingerbread and has a set of Gothic windows. Three walls are cobblestone and the rear of the house is of cut stone

Architectural Photos, Paris, Ontario

963 Keg Lane Road – The Deans family of 6 first lived in a single-storey log cabin on the corner of the property. After 7 more children arrived, construction began on this house. In 1862 construction was completed with cobblestone walls on three sides. The trellised stone verandah closely matches the original one; all the shutters are original

Architectural Photos, Paris, Ontario

207 West River Road – George Brown residence – Construction began in 1854 and was completed in 1862 – it took years to accumulate all the matching cobblestones. It is reflective of the traditional Ontario Cottage style in the Revival tradition.

Architectural Photos, Harrisburg, Ontario

100 German School Road, Harrisburg – Gothic Revival, cornice brackets, bay window, corner quoins

Architectural Photos, Harrisburg, Ontario

96 German School Road, Brant County 33, Harrisburg – hipped roof, dormers, bay window

Architectural Photos, Glen Morris, Ontario

448 McPherson School Road, Glen Morris – Samuel Latshaw residence – 1860 – The walls are made of rubble stone with cut stone around the windows.

Architectural Photos, Glen Morris, Ontario

289 Pinehurst Road – This fieldstone house of Provincial Scottish Victorian architecture was built in 1860 for one of the early settlers in this area, John Maus. The stone for this farmer’s residence and carriage house came from local fields.

Architectural Photos, Glen Morris, Ontario

705 Paris Plains Church Road – Church – 1845 – Gothic Revival – cobblestone construction; lancet windows, cornice return on gable

Architectural Photos, Glen Morris, Ontario

716 Watts Pond Road, Glen Morris – Italianate, paired cornice brackets, half-round windows, sidelights and transom windows

Architectural Photos, Glen Morris, Ontario

2½-storey – Italianate – stone, bay windows, cornice brackets

Paris, Ontario – Book 2 in Colour Photos – My Top 13 Picks

Paris, Ontario – Book 2 in Colour Photos – My Top 13 Picks

Paris, Ontario is located on the Grand River.  It was first settled by Hiram Capron a native of Vermont who, in 1822, emigrated to Norfolk County where he helped to establish one of Upper Canada’s earliest iron foundries.  He settled here at the Forks of the Grand (where the Grand and Nith Rivers meet) in 1829, divided part of his land into town lots, and in 1830 constructed a grist-mill and named the town after the gypsum deposits that were mined nearby. Gypsum is used to make plaster of Paris.

The use of cobblestones to construct buildings was introduced to the area by Levi Boughton when he erected St. James Church in 1839; this was the first cobblestone structure in Paris. Two churches and ten homes, all in current use, are made of numerous such stones taken from the rivers. Other architectural styles that are visible in the downtown area include Edwardian, Gothic and Post Modern.

Dominion Day 1879 began at six a.m. with the ringing of all the town bells. Sports and games were played throughout the day – lacrosse, cricket, boat races, jumping contests, and foot races with prizes for the winners. In the evening there were bonfires and fireworks.

Since its earliest days, Paris was the site of gypsum beds. When ground to a powder in a mill, gypsum, or Plaster of Paris, could be used as a fertilizer, to coat the interior walls of a home, or for casts to set broken bones.

Jim Percival created scale models of the thirteen cobblestone buildings in Paris.

Architectural Photos, Paris, Ontario

42 Broadway Street East – Gouinlock House – is a one-storey, rubble-stone, building constructed in 1845. The Gouinlock House is associated with John Penman, one of Paris’s leading early industrialists and the co-founder of the Penman Manufacturing Company Limited. Penman rented this home, in the mid-1880s, while his permanent residence, Penmarvian, was under renovation. The Gouinlock House is thought to be the only solid rubble-stone building in Paris. This home features local materials and skilled craftsmanship. The exterior of the home was parging and etched to resemble cut stone blocks or coursed ashlar. The more notable features of this home include the large windows, the chimneys, the etched glass doors and the woodwork. Though both the enclosed verandah and a rear portion of the home were additions, the use of rubble-stone and the sympathetic design maintained the integrity of the home.

Architectural Photos, Paris, Ontario

165 Grand River Street North was built by Levi Boughton for Norman and Elizabeth Hamilton, Americans who arrived in Paris about 1831. Norman was a wealthy local industrialist, miller and brewer. This three-storey cobblestone building is designed in the Greek Revival style c. 1839-1844 – it appears to be 1½-storeys in height – the second storey windows are set in light-wells in the verandah roof and are concealed from view by the deep architrave of the verandah. The pillars are square. The triple hung windows on the front façade can be opened so that you can walk out onto the verandah. A lower basement walk-out floor exits to the rear yard. The Hamilton’s son-in-law, Paul Wickson, used the belvedere as his art studio; he specialized in painting animals and rural scenes. An addition was added in 1861 to accommodate visiting family members.

Architectural Photos, Paris, Ontario

165 Grand River Street North – scale model

Architectural Photos, Paris, Ontario

185 Grand River Street North – Penmarvian Retirement Home was built in 1845 by the founder of Paris, Hiram Capron, as a modest two storey building. In 1887 local industrialist John Penman purchased the home and added the Victorian turrets, towers and arches.

Architectural Photos, Paris, Ontario

184 Grand River Street North – built in 1886 in the Italianate style for Captain Cox who was Postmaster of Paris – square tower with half-round windows, iron cresting on roof top; dichromatic brickwork – now the William Kipp Funeral Home

Architectural Photos, Paris, Ontarioario

199 Grand River Street North – red brick – Edwardian style

Architectural Photos, Paris, Ontario

William Street – Italianate style – dichromatic brickwork, banding, two-storey bay windows, hipped roof

Architectural Photos, Paris, Ontario

140 West River Street – 1874 – This was the first of two large textile mills built by Paris industrialist John Penman. Dependent on waterpower in the beginning, a generating plant still stands behind the mill buildings on the bank of the Nith River.

Architectural Photos, Paris, Ontario

55 Banfield Street – hipped roof, corner quoins

Architectural Photos, Paris, Ontario

18 Banfield Street – Edwardian style – Palladian window, turret extending through the roof

Architectural Photos, Paris, Ontario

33 Banfield Street – Italianate with two-storey frontispiece topped by a gable with decorative verge boards and finial

Architectural Photos, Paris, Ontario

1 Banfield Street – built about 1868 by miller Charles Whitlaw – Gothic Revival – verge board trim on gables, compound chimneys

Architectural Photos, Paris, Ontario

36 Jane Street – Italianate – hipped roof, cornice brackets, wraparound verandah, bay window

Paris, Ontario – Book 1 in Colour Photos – My Top 13 Picks

Paris, Ontario – Book 1 in Colour Photos – My Top 13 Picks

Paris, Ontario is located on the Grand River. It was first settled by Hiram Capron a native of Vermont who, in 1822, emigrated to Norfolk County where he helped to establish one of Upper Canada’s earliest iron foundries. He settled here at the Forks of the Grand (where the Grand and Nith Rivers meet) in 1829, divided part of his land into town lots, and in 1830 constructed a grist-mill and named the town after the gypsum deposits that were mined nearby. Gypsum is used to make plaster of Paris. The town of Paris is often referred to as the “cobblestone capital of Canada” because of the many cobblestone buildings that are still standing.

Paris is home to thirteen cobblestone buildings. Mason Levi Boughton inspired Paris’ cobblestone technique in the mid to late 1800s. It is estimated that over 14,000 cobblestones were required to build one traditional farmhouse. Each cobblestone is about the size of a sweet potato. Cobblestone architecture refers to the use of cobblestones embedded in mortar to erect walls of houses and commercial buildings.

Levi Boughton was born in Normandale, New York in 1805. He came to Brantford, Ontario in 1835 and in 1838 he moved to Paris. He brought the cobblestone craft to Paris. The cobbles are fist-sized rocks. Boys were paid ten cents a day to walk beside a sled pulled by oxen and throw cobbles turned up by ploughing into the sled. Mortar is laid in horizontal courses with cobbles framed with mortar joints. Cobblestone walls use lime mortar which is a mixture of lime and sand. Lime mortar sets slower, is more elastic and easier to work with than cement-based mortars. Because lime mortars are porous, relatively soft, and have low tensile strength, corners and wall openings in cobblestone structures are strengthened by rectangular blocks of stone called quoins. Window sills and lentils were also reinforced.

Architectural Photos, Paris Ontario

22 Church Street – Dr. Alfred Bosworth and his wife Sarah built their home in 1845. It is in the Queen Anne Regency style and has cobblestones on the front and south facades and cut fieldstones on the other two sides. In 1870, Reverend and Mrs. Thomas Henderson were living in the house. Originally from Scotland, Rev. Henderson wrote to his friends the Bell family and advised them to come to Canada for a healthier environment for their son Alexander Graham Bell.

Architectural Photos, Paris Ontario

31 Church Street

Architectural Photos, Paris Ontario

40 Dumfries Street – pre 1841 – Hugh Finlayson was the first mayor of Paris and also the first speaker of the Provincial parliament. He lived in this Georgian red brick house with Neo-Classical features.

Architectural Photos, Paris Ontario

17 Dumfries Street – Italianate with two-storey tower-like bay – Beautiful century home within walking distance to downtown

Architectural Photos, Paris Ontario

57 Main Street – stone Regency Cottage, dormer in attic

Architectural Photos, Paris Ontario

19 Queen Street – Levi Boughton’s house is an Ontario cottage is simple and elegant. It looks small but it has twelve foot ceilings. The exterior has cobblestone walls on three sides. The cobblestones are small and evenly matched in size and color. The Boughtons had sixteen children and three of them became masons and plasterers. Under the low pitched roof is nested the plastered and painted attic with a height of less than five feet at the peak – sleeping quarters for the children.

Architectural Photos, Paris Ontario

3 Arnold Street – Ouse Lodge (named after Ouse River – now Grand River) – early 1840s – Italianate cobblestone, two-storey bay window, second floor balcony, corner quoins – built by Levi Boughton as the Anglican Rectory for Rev. William Morse. Morse was also a musician and the house had a pipe organ.

Architectural Photos, Paris Ontario

14 Grand River Street South – yellow brick, voussoirs and keystones, two-storey bay window, cornice brackets

Architectural Photos, Paris Ontario

52 Grand River Street South – Greek Revival style – house of Asa Wolverton (sawmill owner), 1851 – wood frame construction covered in plaster of Paris

Architectural Photos, Paris Ontario

106 Grand River Street North – The Arlington Hotel – c. 1850s, 1888 – 4-storey stucco and yellow brick reminiscent of the Chateau style, Romanesque style arcades supported by red-brown marble columns at the street level, octagonal tower, arched and rectangular windows

Architectural Photos, Paris Ontario

16 Broadway Street West – cobblestone masonry in the Greek Revival style was built in 1845. Cast iron grills cover “stomacher” windows beneath the eaves. A well-matched addition in 1885 housed a doctor’s office. Smooth stones lintels and sills; the cobblestones are tilted; Greek symbols on the portico; dormers in attic; iron cresting on roof.

Architectural Photos, Paris Ontario

30 Broadway Street West – Italianate, cornice brackets, corner quoins, two-storey bay window

Architectural Photos, Paris Ontario

36 Broadway Street West – Italianate, paired cornice brackets, iron cresting on second floor balcony, two-storey bay window

Thunder Bay, Ontario – Part 2 – My Top 19 Picks

Thunder Bay, Ontario – Part 2 – My Top 19 Picks

Fort William was a city in Northern Ontario located on the Kaministiquia River at its entrance to Lake Superior. It amalgamated with Port Arthur and the townships of Neebing and McIntyre to form the city of Thunder Bay in January 1970. The city’s Latin motto was A posse ad esse (From a Possibility to an Actuality) featured on its coat of arms designed in 1900 by town officials. “On one side of the shield stands an Indian dressed in the paint and feathers of the early days; on the other side is a French voyageur; the center contains an elevator, a steamship and a locomotive, while the beaver surmounts the whole.”

In about 1684, Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut, established a trading post near the mouth of the Kaministiquia River. French authorities closed this post in 1696 because of a glut on the fur market. In 1717, a new post, Fort Kaministiquia, was established at the river mouth. The post was abandoned in 1758 or 1760 during the British conquest of New France.

In 1803, the Nor ‘Westers established a new fur trading post on the Kaministiquia River and the post was named Fort William in 1807 after William McGillivray, chief director of the North West Company from 1804-1821. After the union of the North West Company with the Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC) in 1821 most trade shifted to York Factory on Hudson Bay. Two townships (Neebing and Paipoonge) and the Fort William Town Plot were surveyed in 1859-60 and opened to settlement.

By 1883-84, the Montreal-based CPR syndicate, in collaboration with the Hudson’s Bay Company, clearly preferred the low-lying lands along the lower Kaministiquia River to the exposed shores of Port Arthur, which required an expensive breakwater if shipping and port facilities were to be protected from the waves. The CPR subsequently consolidated all its operations there, erecting rail yards, coal-handling facilities, grain elevators and a machine shop.

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

1306 Ridgeway Street East – It was constructed in 1911 with Simpson Island stone. This two and a half storey European style home has many unique architectural characteristics which include the prominent red tiling on the high pitched gable roof as well as the light gray squared rubble that was used in the construction. The iron porch was added after Bishop E. Q. Jennings purchased the house in 1958. – Thunder Bay Book 3

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

1303 Ridgeway Street East – Strachan Residence – Cecil R. Strachan, a local jeweler, was the first owner. It is built in a Revival Period style, has a stucco exterior in a light gray-green colour contrasted with hood moulds found around the main entrance and windows on the first storey. The entrance is embrasure with plain moulding. Above the entry is a window with a baluster barrier. The bay windows of the façade of the house are divided with glazing bars. – Thunder Bay Book 3

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

1100 Ridgeway Street East – Windrose was built in 1910 for Frederick and Cora Morris – he was a solicitor in Fort William beginning in 1897. Queen Anne Revival style – red brick contrasted with cut stone, wood and a rubble stone coursed foundation. The front façade is asymmetrical and the roofline is irregular. The central bay is flat topped, another bay has a rounded dormer, and the third bay has a pointed dormer. The façade has two Palladian windows on the first floor, and a second floor bay window which suit the Queen Anne style. The house has two rounded verandas supported by classically inspired columns. – Thunder Bay Book 3

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

431 Selkirk Street South – The Murphy house and grounds, span a whole city block. They are a reminder of the days of Edwardian commercial wealth. The house is a three and a half storey home in brick and stone. James Murphy arrived in Fort William in 1884 and earned his fortune by establishing the James Murphy Coal Company, after having gained valuable experience as a fuel contractor for the Canadian Pacific Railway. The company shipped fuel throughout Northwestern Ontario and into Manitoba. Members of the Murphy family remained in the mansion after the death of James Murphy in 1928, and the subdivision of the house into apartments in 1946. – Thunder Bay Book 3

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

541 Norah Street – two-storey bay window, second and third floor balconies – Thunder Bay Book 3

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

410 Norah Street – Neo-colonial – Tudor half-timbering on gables – Thunder Bay Book 3

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

512 Marks Street South – Fort William Collegiate Institute was constructed in 1907 to house the ever increasing need for a secondary school in Fort William. A big reconstruction in 1918 added the Vocational Wing. A second addition was constructed in 1925, and a third in 1970. The stately structure acted as a symbol of social importance to the community. Constructed of brick and stone, the building is three and a half storeys high and is eclectic in design. The main façade, which faces Marks Street South repeats its main architectural features on both the Isabella and Catherine Street sides. The building boasts impressive stonework and features large columns with Corinthian capitals which span from the second to third storey. They are topped by a circular pediment with a decorated typanum below a stepped parapet. The oak doors of the main entrance as well as the woodwork in the lobby area add to the stately décor of the structure. – Thunder Bay Book 3

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

400 Catherine Street South – This house was built in 1911 for William Ross and his family. Ross worked as an engineer on the Canadian Pacific Railway and as the treasurer of Northern Engineering. Starting in 1947 the house was used by the Lakehead Board of Education. In 1966 it was sold and was divided into apartments and remains as such today. This two and a half storey Tudor Revival home was constructed of red sandstone. Architectural features include the massive three storey portico on the façade, and the truncated hipped roof. The north and south slopes of the roof each have a chimney. – Thunder Bay Book 3

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

121 McKellar Street South – Built in 1907 for owner Thomas P. Kelley, a local merchant, the house was later sold to Dr. R. Kerr Dewar who had fought in the First World War, returned home to study medicine and purchased this home in 1920. The first floor was converted to a medical clinic in 1928. The building is a good example of Edwardian Classicism. It has metal cresting on one of the dormer windows. The first and second floors both have distinctive Palladian windows with prominent keystones. On the front façade, the centrally placed wood covered porch is supported by brick piers. There is a two-storey bay window. – Thunder Bay Book 4

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

440 South Syndicate Avenue – Built in 1911 as a union station by the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) and the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway (GTPR), the station served as a passenger terminal and as administrative headquarters for the vast grain-handling facilities that were the foundation of the community. Union Station is a good example of Beaux-Arts design applied to a railway station. Notable architectural features include a projecting central bay with stone quoins and two wheat sheaves carved in Bedford stone, an arched entrance with a transom light, and projecting end bays with pilasters topped with decorative elements. – Thunder Bay Book 4

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

130 South Syndicate Avenue – The Federal Building represents a turning point in the development of Fort William. The Federal Building was constructed between 1934 and 1936. It is an example of the Beaux-Arts style that employs classical decorative elements to achieve a monumental effect. The building shows attention to symmetry, proportion and detail throughout. Excellent craftsmanship and materials are seen in the rich detailing of the exterior stonework and also in the opulence of the interior finishes. – Thunder Bay Book 4

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

207-211 Brodie Street South – St. Andrew’s Presbyterian Church was designed in the style of fourteenth century English Gothic. One of the most striking architectural features of the church is the massive tower at the northeast corner. It is made from Simpson islet grey/white sandstone. The main entrance, which faces Brodie Street, is composed of two Gothic arches with elaborate moulds and is supported at the center and on either side by ten massive, polished granite columns. The ornamental cap of Bedford stone is beautifully carved, the design at the centre being the Maple Leaf, while the one on the right is carved into a Rose and on the left, the Scottish Thistle. The label mould around the arches stops with two bosses, carved with Shamrocks in bold relief, while on the right arch final is carved the Leek, representing Wales and on the left final are the Lilies of France. These carvings are symbolic of the fact that everyone is welcome to the church. The main tower rises to a height of ninety-five feet and is supported by four angle buttresses. Square to the clock loft, it changes into an octagon and terminates in the well-known typical Gothic weathering of this period of architecture. Stained glass windows enhance the beauty of the church, depicting The Good Shepard, the Dove with the Olive Branch, a Wheat Sheaf, the Burning Bush and St. Andrew’s Cross. – Thunder Bay Book 4

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

216 Brodie Street South – The Brodie Resource Library, which opened in 1912, followed the architectural guidelines established by its benefactor, Mr. Andrew Carnegie. Resembling Palladian Renaissance architecture, the library’s symmetrical staircase entrance was embellished with a pair of Ionic columns enclosed by pilasters. Carnegie approached library design with symbolism in mind, and the staircase entrance was supposed to have denoted a person’s rise through intellectual learning. Brodie Street Resource Library’s entrance was renovated in 1966 to permit accessibility, and the pilasters were changed into square piers. The overall composition of the exterior is Neo-Renaissance in character. Red brick and limestone pilasters and columns rest on a heavy stone base. Arches and columns arranged symmetrically about the main entrance support a bracketed cornice. The cornice in turn supports a brick parapet which corresponds to the Renaissance balustrade. Other notable architectural features of the library are the arched windows and their surrounding decorative stonework, the stained-glass windows depicting famous authors, from Dante to Ibsen, the parapet inscribed ‘Public Library,’ and the ornamental scrolls which adorn it.

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

135 Archibald Street South – Vernacular style – The house which stands on the corner of Archibald and Miles Street was first owned by Sarah Jane and George Coo. It is thought that George designed the building which has an elegant and eclectic feel. The jutting turrets, arched entranceway and quarter-wheel windows are features which one wouldn’t expect on such a modest-sized structure. The house is characterized by an ostentatious conical turret with faux brickwork façade. The windows are all of varied shapes and sizes, lending themselves to the overall eclecticism of the house. The large window on the main floor has a shelf entablature above it; there is also a large stone sill supported by brackets. Above the double-hung window on the second level is a molded shelf which begins rather abruptly and continues around the turret.

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

701 Victoria Avenue East – The Chapple Building – In 1913, Fort William was designated the headquarters of the Grain Commission. A prominent building was constructed in the community with the facilities to handle and inspect grain. The structure housed offices on the third floor and the bottom two storeys were rented to the Chapples Company as a department store. Chapples sold everything from “lady-ready-to-wear” to “hardware” and upon its opening in this building boasted a staff of one hundred. The façade of the building features Classical detailing. Some of the architectural features are large scale dentils located on the metal projecting cornice and brick piers with stone relief capitals creating seven bays. The building has a recessed entrance with Doric columns.

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

114 May Street South – Upon completion in 1929, the Royal Edward Arms hotel had 105 rooms, each furnished with a bath and there were an additional twenty-one simple rooms which were available for day rental. The dining room seated 150 people and the kitchen was well equipped to deal with busy dinner hours, with a dishwasher capable of washing 7,000 dishes per hour, a 40 gallon soup kettle and an 8 gallon coffee urn. A large ball room, a convention hall and a banquet hall were also features of the lavish hotel. The Royal Edward Arms was a successfully run hotel for many years. Many notable people spent nights at the hotel, with perhaps the most memorable visit being from the Royal Family; Queen Elizabeth II visited with Prince Charles in the 1950s and although they didn’t spend the night they did rent a day room. In the 1980s the hotel was converted to apartments. It is in the Art Deco style. Although the exterior has a stucco or plaster look to it especially with the decorative work, the entire building is concrete. Slipform Construction technique is a sliding-form construction method of pouring vertical concrete structures. It begins with the construction of a fixed-diameter form on top of a foundation, with a back-up support and bracing system to ensure that the form maintains its shape during movement. Inside and outside forms create the cavity of the wall, and inside this cavity, reinforcing steel is tied together vertically and horizontally to reinforce the concrete wall. The form is then connected to jack rods with hydraulic jacks, which automatically move the form vertically in minute increments as the concrete is being poured. Once pouring begins, it continues until the top of the structure is reached, allowing for a large poured concrete structure. This method of construction is typically used on large-scale storage silos and other vertical concrete structures, such as elevator cores and batch houses.

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

201 May Street North – The Revenue Canada Building is associated with the federal government’s expansion of services into smaller communities, and with its provision of well designed, up-to-date facilities. It was built from 1913-1916 when Fort William was one of the world’s largest grain-handling ports and a major trade and transportation point and railway terminal. The construction of the building reflects the unprecedented prosperity and optimism of the early twentieth century as well as the expansion of east-west trade and the economic importance of customs activities. The Revenue Canada Building is an example of Beaux-Arts Classicism. This style was commonly used by the Department of Public Works for public institutions in the early twentieth century. The building’s good craftsmanship and materials are demonstrated in its use of pale limestone veneer and granite accents on the two principal elevations and in the masonry details.

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

425 Donald Street East – Thunder Bay Museum – The Police Station and Court House was built in 1912. It is an example of the Edwardian Classical style of architecture. It had enough space for a Court room, separate cell blocks for men, women and juveniles, law clerk and magistrate offices as well as a public hall for meetings. A wide flight of curving stone stairs surrounded by a solid, stepped stone parapet leads to an imposing portico. Subdivided into three sections, the central portion of the façade is recessed and framed by two massive columns. The free standing columns rise two stories and are accented by two pilasters that are attached to the façade wall on both sides of the entrance. The placement of these pilasters gives the impression that there are four columns instead of two, creating an interesting optical illusion. The pilasters are also crowned by carved acanthus leaves and small volutes. The tapered columns are adorned by Roman Corinthian capitals. The columns support a massive moulded architrave which extends across the façade; over the entrance is a pediment with a bull’s eye window. The date 1910 is in high relief on the broken pediment. The façade is rusticated stone up to the 2nd floor and the remainder of the façade is faced with Milton brick. Although the windows of the upper portion of the façade have been altered, the stone sills and lintels remain intact. The old police station was renovated to house the Thunder Bay Museum. The major exhibits of the Museum, which opened in 1997, have ample space as additions have been made to the already fair-sized structure.

Kakabeka Falls, Ontario

Kakabeka Falls is a waterfall on the Kaministiquia River located thirty kilometers (nineteen miles) west of the city of Thunder Bay. The falls have a drop of forty meters (one hundred and thirty feet), cascading into a gorge. The name “Kakabeka” comes from the Ojibwe word meaning “waterfall over a cliff”.

Thunder Bay, Ontario – Part 1 – Port Arthur – My Top 12 Picks

Thunder Bay, Ontario – Part 1 – Port Arthur – My Top 12 Picks

The City of Thunder Bay has three histories. The twin cities of Fort William and Port Arthur were amalgamated in 1970. Thunder Bay’s past is linked with the parallel but separate pasts of the two cities.

Port Arthur was a city in Northern Ontario which amalgamated with Fort William and the townships of Neebing and McIntyre to form the city of Thunder Bay in January 1970.

With Confederation in 1867, Simon James Dawson was employed to construct a road and route from Thunder Bay on Lake Superior to the Red River Colony. The depot on the lake, where supplies were landed and stored acquired its first name in May 1870. It was named Prince Arthur’s Landing in honor of Prince Arthur, son of Queen Victoria who was serving with his regiment in Montreal.

Prospering from the CPR railway construction boom of 1882–1885, Port Arthur was incorporated as a town in March 1884, one year after acquiring its new name. The CPR erected Thunder Bay’s and western Canada’s first terminal grain elevator on the bay in 1883. The end of CPR construction along the north shore of Lake Superior and the CPR’s decision to centralize its operations along the lower Kaministiquia River brought an end to Port Arthur’s prosperity. Silver mining had been the mainstay of the economy for most of the 1870s. The silver mining boom of the 1880s came to an end with the passage by the U.S. Congress of the McKinley Tariff in October 1890. The town was in dire economic straits until 1897–1899 when the entrepreneurs William Mackenzie and Donald Mann acquired the Ontario and Rainy River Railway and the Port Arthur, Duluth and Western Railway, and chose Port Arthur as the Lake Superior headquarters for the Canadian Northern Railway. Port Arthur thrived as a trans-shipment and grain handling port for the CNR after the railway line was opened to Winnipeg in December 1901.

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

349 Waverley Street – St. Paul’s United Church was built in 1914 in mixed styles of Georgian (stone window surrounds) and Late Gothic Revival (double towers, buttresses, and geometrical tracery). The façade appears complicated because of the two different towers, the arched entrance portico with balcony above, the elaborate tracery, and the crenelations on the roof lines. Constructed of local red brick, white Bedford limestone is used for accent. A wide segmental arch with molding frames the covered entry; the doors are placed to the right and left, in the base of the towers. Above the arch there are spandrels filled with floral relief ornament. The piers to either side of the arch conclude with tall pointed finials. The north wall above the balcony has three large segmental arched windows with stone surrounds. Shallow stepped buttresses in brick with triangular capstones separate the windows. The honeycomb window tracery is applied to the windows rather than the structure. A date stone, 1913, is located above the window. – Port Arthur Book 1

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

401 Red River Road – Port Arthur Collegiate Institute was constructed in 1909 of Simpson Island stone in the Queen Anne style. Due to decreasing enrollment, the school was closed in 2007. Lakehead University purchased the building and it is now the Bora Laskin Faculty of Law. Originally symmetrical, the school has a four-storey central tower flanked by two three-storey wings. The curved step-gables of the wings repeat the curved crenelations atop the tower. Rounded battlements project from the topmost corners of the tower and oriel windows from the second level. The entrance is on the first floor of the tower and reached through a round arch. Both the tower and the wings have buttresses at the corners. – Book 1

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

Red River Road – Queen Anne style with a three-storey tower with string courses between the windows; there are cornice brackets below the octagonal roof, and along the rest of the roof line; there is a second floor balcony above the veranda. – Book 1

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

9 Water Street North – The Canadian National Railway Station was constructed in 1906 in the Chateauesque style. Brick is used on a symmetrical plan with Tyndall limestone used in the foundation and for decorative elements. The solid symmetrical arrangement of the masses and windows, combined with the Scottish Baronial style (the most noticeable characteristic of which is the bartizan, an overhanging corner turret), very high pitched roofs, multiple dormer windows, and crenelated turrets qualify this building as being a prime example of the “Railroad Gothic style” developed by the railway companies at the beginning of the twentieth century and is uniquely Canadian.
The plan of this brick building with pitch-faced limestone trim consists of a long, low, gabled central section. The large square end towers have centrally hipped roofs. The towers each have a central gable with three square-headed windows under one lintel course, with a string course, supported by stone corbels, at the windowsill level. Above the windows there is a triangular tablet bearing a wheat sheaf, the letters CNR and the date 1905, in relief. The second storey contains a triplet of round-headed windows with stone imposts and keystones; at the windowsill level there is a string course supported by a brick corbel table. The second storey of the central section consists of a parapeted gable with a bull’s eye window below it. There is a frame canopy over the first storey across the full length of the east wall; it is supported on frame brackets that rest on stone corbels. All the corners of the building have quoining. There is a tall brick chimney on the east slope of the roof over the central section. – Port Arthur Book 2

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

9 Water Street North building end – The tower corners have bartizans with loophole windows, and stone bottoms and battlements.

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

170 Red River Road – The Pagoda Visitor Centre was constructed in 1909. It was built specifically to capture the attention of visitors to Port Arthur. It is an eclectic mixture of Roman, Greek (the peristyle formed by the columns surrounding the outside of the building which support the roof and is characteristic of basic elements of western architecture), Indian Islamic (mushroom or umbrella-shaped roof) and Scandinavian architecture. The cupola on top of the roof was originally designed so that bands could play to welcome visitors. Above the entrance is a large carved stone panel with a beaver and maple leaves. – Book 2

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

170 Red River Road – Above the entrance is a large carved stone panel with a beaver and maple leaves.

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

146 Court Street North – McVicar Manor Bed and Breakfast is a 1906 Edwardian red brick home with three spacious rooms. It has a three-storey turret, and a two-and-a-half tower-like bay, cornice brackets, Ionic pillars supporting a wraparound veranda. – Book 2

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

277 Camelot Street – The District Court House was constructed in 1924 in the Classical Revival style. The building is symmetrical and is constructed of structural steel with brick walls. The imposing exterior of the building includes the Classical pediment above the main entrance which is supported by four Corinthian columns. The white Tyndall limestone used for the columns, sills and the window casement rim contains visible fossils. – Book 2

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

38-40 Cumberland Street South at the corner of Lincoln – The former Ottawa House hotel is a distinctive three-storey business block constructed of red brick in 1888. There is a wooden cornice at the roofline, decorative brick brackets which visually extend the cornice, and rectangular areas of patterned brickwork between the windows. Splayed brick forms an arch between the pairs of windows and the single window on the third-floor windows, and there are brick voussoirs above the second-storey windows. There is a second-floor balcony above the corner entrance. The hotel was advertised as having fifty rooms, baths, a steam furnace, and electric light. – Book 2

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

17 Cumberland Street North – The Prince Arthur Hotel was built in 1911. The rooms were well heated and lighted; each one had hot and cold running water. The cost of a room for the night was as low as one dollar. Most early visitors to the Lakehead arrived by steamship or by rail, and disembarked at the stations near the Prince Arthur. The hotel was constructed of brick and stone and had a marble staircase. Six stories high, the building has prominent lintels above all upper floor windows, impressive massing, and decorative brick work on the top storey. There are slightly projecting pilasters on the stone portion of the building and a cut stone string-course between the fifth and sixth storeys. The original lake side entrance had formal terraced gardens and lawns that cascaded down to the Canadian Pacific Railway Station. The hotel was expanded in 1912 and again in 1920. A dining room, barbershop, newsstand, washrooms, writing room, balcony and extra wings were added. – Book 2

Architectural Photos, Thunder Bay, Ontario

12-22 Cumberland Street North – The Lyceum Theatre was built in 1909 to accommodate traveling shows and then later it was a movie theater; now it is several offices and stores. Some of the significant architectural features are keystones with bearded faces, segmented semi-circular windows, and a large stone panel in the center of the façade with the name LYCEUM in large letters. The building is steel framed with brick facing and stone trim. – Book 2

Lake Superior, Dryden, Kenora, Ontario – My Top 8 Picks

Lake Superior, Dryden, Kenora, Ontario – My Top 8 Picks

Lake Superior is the largest freshwater lake in the world by surface area, and the third largest in volume. If the coast of Lake Superior was unraveled into a highway, it would extend 2,939 kilometers (1826 miles). The deepest spot is 406 meters (1,322 feet). Lake Superior presented many challenges to shipping. As interest in the resources of the north grew, investors wanted a more reliable form of transportation and the Algoma Central Railway was built. It was intended to bring iron ore and pulp logs from Wawa and Hearst to the mills of Sault Ste. Marie. With the completion of the railroad in 1914, loggers, tourists and artists traveled to places that had been difficult to reach.

Before Lake Superior Provincial Park was created, a group of artists came to paint pictures of Canada. J.E.H. MacDonald found a multi-channeled falls which he painted showing the foam, the reflections, the colors and the magic. These artists were experimenting with new techniques that showed the ruggedness and beauty of the land. Each fall between 1918 and 1922, members of the Group of Seven painted the newly accessible landscape of the Algoma region as the railway was built. They lived in a rented boxcar and traveled up and down the railway in a three-wheeled handcart called a velocipede. A canoe took them to locations away from the track. The bold new style of painting used vibrant colors.

The Agawa River Valley formed a natural pathway through the wilderness; a section of the railway follows the route through the Agawa Canyon.

When the first Europeans traveled to the Wawa region in the late 1600s, they were introduced to a rugged landscape occupied by the Ojibway people. Wawa means clear water. Somewhere along the way wawa may have been mistranslated to wild goose instead of wewe which means snow goose. The wild goose story stuck and thus was born Wawa’s legendary Wawa Goose.

Kenora is a small city situated on the Lake of the Woods in Northwestern Ontario, close to the Manitoba border. It is about two hundred kilometers (124 miles) east of Winnipeg. Kenora’s future site was in the territory of the Ojibway when the first European, Jacques de Novon, sighted Lake of the Woods in 1688. Pierre La Verendrye established a French trading post, Fort St. Charles, to the south of present-day Kenora near the current Canada/United States border in 1732, and France maintained the post until 1763 when it lost the territory to the British in the Seven Years’ War. In 1836 the Hudson’s Bay Company established a post on Old Fort Island, and in 1861, the Company opened a post on the mainland at Kenora’s current location.

In 1878, the company surveyed lots for the permanent settlement of Rat Portage (“portage to the country of the muskrat”) — the community kept that name until 1905, when it was renamed Kenora. Gold and the railroad were both important in the community’s early history: gold was first discovered in the area in 1850, and by 1893, twenty mines were operating within 24 kilometers (15 miles) of the town. The first Canadian ocean-to-ocean train passed through in 1886 on the Canadian Pacific Railway. A highway was built through Kenora in 1932, becoming part of Canada’s first coast-to-coast highway in 1943, and then part of the Trans-Canada Highway. In 1967, the year of the Canadian Centennial, Kenora erected a sculpture known as Husky the Muskie. It has become the town’s mascot and one of its most recognizable features.

A dramatic bank robbery took place in Kenora on May 10, 1973. An unknown man entered the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce heavily armed. After robbing the bank, the robber was preparing to enter a city vehicle driven by undercover police officer Don Milliard. A sniper positioned across the street shot the robber causing the explosives he was carrying to detonate and kill the robber. Most of the windows on the shops on the main street were shattered as a result of the blast.

Dryden is the second-largest city in the Kenora District of Northwestern Ontario. It is located on Wabigoon Lake. The Dryden area is part of the Ojibway nation, which covers a large area from Lake Huron in the east to Lake of the Woods and beyond. The Ojibway are nomadic with groups from family to village size moving over the land with the seasons and the availability of game or the necessities of life. The settlement was founded as an agricultural community by John Dryden, Ontario’s Minister of Agriculture in 1895. While his train was stopped at what was then known as Barclay Tank to re-water, he noticed clover growing and decided to found an experimental farm the following year. The farm’s success brought settlers from other areas and the community came to be known as New Prospect. Pulp and paper came to the town in 1910. Today, its main industries are agriculture, tourism and mining. The town was the site of the March 10, 1989 crash of Air Ontario Flight 1363 which killed twenty-four people. Dryden is known by people passing by as the home of “Max the Moose”, Dryden’s 5.6 meters (18 foot) high mascot on the Trans-Canada Highway.

Lake Superior

Lake Superior view

Lake Superior

Lake Superior view two

Lake Superior, Ontario

To the Ojibway, this river of fine white sand was known as Pinguisibi.

Lake Superior, Ontario

Here in the shelter of the Lizard Islands, the waters are warmer and shallower. The sand beaches of Katherine Cove are a great place for relaxing and having a picnic.

Wawa, Ontario

The famous Wawa Goose gazes out over the Trans-Canada Highway as it carries traffic through the Magpie River Valley. The Magpie River travels about one hundred and thirty kilometers over a number of scenic waterfalls (Steephill Falls, Magpie High Falls, and Silver Falls) until it merges with the Michipicoten River half a kilometer from its mouth on Lake Superior.

Nipigon Bridge, Ontario

Nipigon Bridge at sunset

Architectural Photos, Kenora, Ontrio

Kenora Post Office – A.D. 1898 – Second Empire style – mansard roof with dormers, dichromatic brickwork, banding, three-storey clock tower

Dryden, Ontario

Dryden Ontario