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St. Catharines, Ontario – Book 5 in Colour Photos – My Top 15 Picks

St. Catharines is the largest city in Canada’s Niagara Region in Southern Ontario. It is 51 kilometers (32 miles) south of Toronto across Lake Ontario, and is 19 kilometers (12 miles) inland from the international boundary with the United States along the Niagara River. It is the northern entrance of the Welland Canal.

The city was first settled by Loyalists in the 1780s. The Crown granted them land in compensation for their services and for losses in the United States. Early histories credit Sergeant Jacob Dittrick and Private John Hainer, formerly of Butler’s Rangers, as among the first to come to the area. They took their Crown Patents where Dick’s Creek and 12 Mile Creek merge, now the city center of St. Catharines.

Secondary to water routes, native trails provided transportation networks, resulting in the present-day radial road pattern from the City center.

The small settlement was known as “The Twelve” and as “Murray’s District” to military and civic officials, but the local residents in 1796 and earlier referred to it as St. Catharines.

The Merritt family arrived; they were among the later Loyalists to relocate following the American Revolution. In 1796, Thomas Merritt arrived to build on his relationship with his former Commander and Queen’s Ranger, John Graves Simcoe, now the Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada.

The first Welland Canal was constructed from 1824 to 1833 behind what is now known as St. Paul Street, using Twelve Mile and Dick’s Creek. William Hamilton Merritt worked to promote the ambitious venture, both by raising funds and by enlisting government support. The canal established St. Catharines as the hub of commerce and industry for the Niagara Peninsula.

The Queen Street neighborhood has been subject to historical development associated with the Merritt family. The Niagara Peninsula saw considerable economic growth after the construction of the first Welland Canal, a project initiated by William Hamilton Merritt, a prominent land owner. The subdivision of his family’s estate in 1868 created the Triangular Tract, a new residential neighborhood with an extensive open parcel of land known as Montebello Gardens, later to be acquired by the City as a park.

By the 1870s, Queen Street was a thriving residential street while Montebello Park saw the construction of a large pavilion and a smaller bandstand. It was not until 1913 that families settled into residential dwellings on Midland Street along the park’s border. The unique building styles found in this neighborhood give the Queen Street District a diverse and rich streetscape.

The Yates Street residential district was developed in the late 1800s and early 1900s along the banks of Twelve Mile Creek on land originally owned by William Hamilton Merritt. Soon after he moved to St. Catharines, Merritt began building a mill along the shores of the creek. There he discovered an artesian well with mineral water flowing from a deep cavity in the earth. This water could be boiled, leaving behind salt residue – a valuable commodity at the time. In later years, it was discovered that drinking or bathing in the mineral water could cure a variety of ailments. This prompted the development of two spa resorts on Yates Street – the Stephenson House and Springbank Hotel – allowing those with ailing health and vacationers from far and wide to test the healing powers of the mineral waters.

In the early to mid-1800s, many mills were constructed along Twelve Mile Creek, all of which needed a reliable source of water. The Erie Canal was being designed in the United States as a waterway that would divert vessels away from local businesses in Upper Canada. Hoping to solve both of these problems, Merritt formed the Welland Canal Company in 1824. The Company was made up of many investors, one of whom was John B. Yates, an entrepreneur from the United States. Yates Street was named in his honor. The Canal was finally finished in 1829, bringing vessels through Twelve Mile Creek on their way to the Great Lakes and beyond.

Many important businesses made their home on the banks of the Welland Canal. Yates Street was located very close to the new businesses so many of the mill owners and managers chose to reside there. They were generally very wealthy men and therefore wanted large, elegant homes. A lot of the homes were constructed in elaborate styles such as Georgian and Tudor that are rarely seen in other parts of the city due to the large size and detailing required.

Over the years, the home owners have wisely preserved many of the grown trees on their property, creating the beautiful tree-lined streetscape we see today. Although the mills and other canal side businesses ceased operation after a new route was chosen for the canal, the elegant residences remain, creating a beautiful eclectic neighborhood.

Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
Court Street – 2½ storey tower, pediments on the roof, banding, beveled dentil molding, semi-circular stone voussoirs
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
19 Centre Street – Edwardian – oval stained-glass window with contrasting-colored brick voussoirs
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
87 Queen Street – Gothic, pediment
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
88 St. Paul Street – Detour Music Hall – pediment, cornice brackets, pilasters with composite capitals
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
115 St. Paul Street – cornice brackets, dentil molding, voussoirs and keystones
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
101 St. Paul Street – Patrick Sheehan’s Irish Pub – parapet, keystones, engaged Doric pillars, pilasters
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
157-159 St. Paul Street – dormers, drip molds with keystones
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
220 St. Paul Street – stepped parapet – 1914 date stone, voussoirs, banding
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
321 St. Paul Street – mansard roof with dormers, tower extending above roof line with iron cresting around widow’s walk, polychromatic tile work, keystones
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
15 Welland Avenue – Second Empire – mansard roof with dormers with window hoods, three-storey tower, pediment, cornice brackets, voussoirs and keystones
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
12 Yates Street – cornice brackets, round windows in gables, pedimented window hoods over lower windows, sidelights – Oak Hill was built in 1860 after Merritt’s first house burned due to arson. Merritt was part of The Refugee Slaves Friends Society. The tunnels under Oak Hill house connected it to the coach house and another to Twelve Mile Creek. There was plenty of space to hide escaping slaves, and it was an important stop on the Underground Railway. In 1938 the building was converted into CKTB radio station.
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
26 Yates Street – Classical Revival – second floor semi-circular balcony above pillared porch with composite capitals, sidelights and transom
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
29 Yates Street – Georgian – balanced façade, cornice brackets, shutters on six-over-six windows
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
30 Yates Street – three dormers, second floor balcony above pillared entrance with sidelights, bay window
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
33 Yates Street – hipped roof, cornice brackets, shutters, engaged pillars around door with sidelights and transom

St. Catharines, Ontario – Book 4 in Colour Photos – My Top 18 Picks

St. Catharines is the largest city in Canada’s Niagara Region in Southern Ontario. It is 51 kilometers (32 miles) south of Toronto across Lake Ontario, and is 19 kilometers (12 miles) inland from the international boundary with the United States along the Niagara River. It is the northern entrance of the Welland Canal. St. Catharines carries the official nickname “The Garden City” due to its 1,000 acres of parks, gardens and trails.

Before this area was settled several Indian trails intersected here at a ford in Twelve Mile Creek. They were improved by early settlers and a church was erected at the crossroads by 1798. A tavern soon followed and a settlement began to grow. After the War of 1812, the community expanded largely through the efforts of William Hamilton Merritt. He was the chief promoter of the first Welland Canal built in 1824-33. The canal made St. Catharines a center for water transportation, and provided abundant water power for industry. Factories and mills were established and St. Catharines became a leading flour-milling and shipbuilding center.

Dr. Lucius Oille was born in 1830 and was one of St. Catharines most prominent citizens. He served as a member of council for several years before becoming mayor in 1878. He was the second mayor of the city and first chairman of the waterworks. Oille was a physician and owned the first x-ray machine in St. Catharine. He was involved in dozens of city projects, such as the organization of the Niagara Central Railway and the city’s first streetcar system. In 1878 Dr. Oille donated a fountain in front of the courthouse at the corner of King and James Street to the citizens of St. Catharines. He wanted to provide water to citizens who were shopping in the market square or had come downtown to work. Tin drinking cups were attached to the fountain by a chain so that people could use them to drink. Dr. Oille even thought of the animals as the fountain has a small basin at the bottom specifically for them. This gift marked the establishment of the city’s waterworks system in 1875-1876. Dr. Lucius Oille died on August 15, 1903.

Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
15 Church Street – 1½ storey frontispiece entrance – Heritage Building
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
27 Church Street – Italianate – 2½ storey bay windows, fretwork, dormer
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
26-30 Church Street – Gothic Revival, verge board trim and finials on gables
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
31 Church Street – cornice brackets, dentil molding, keystones and voussoirs, free standing and engaged columns, sidelights and transom windows around door
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
104 Church Street – decorative entrance, shutters on windows
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
106-108 Church Street – Second Empire style, mansard roof, dormers with window hoods
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
101 King Street – former Court House – Georgian style – 1848-1849 – The visible James and King Street facades are of channeled Queenston ashlars while the concealed west and north walls are constructed with a course rubble limestone and brick, respectively. The front façade has a tower with a three-faced striking clock and is topped by an octagonal cupola. The clock continues to chime with the assistance of the original weights which extend from the clock tower to the first floor. The entrance to the building is carved in stone like the town hall in Perugia, Italy. It features upright balustrades which conform to the slope of the stairway. The supporting columns under the copings on each side are individually carved to fit its specific location. The northeast wing cut-stone addition to the original structure was built in 1865 to accommodate the County offices and courthouse.
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
164 King Street – three storey tower with voussoirs and keystones; cornice brackets
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
183 King Street – Mill Memorial Home was built in 1868 for James Mills, a founding member of the YMCA. The structure is a two and one half storey brick home built with Italianate design influences. It features a central tower and decorative roof line brackets. The tower has a mansard roof and semi-circular dormers. There are oval windows set between two courses of white brick which are located below the boxed cornice, decorative frieze and brackets of the roof line. The main floor windows are segmental with plain trim and a continuous stone sill. The upper windows are set in semi-circular frames. The main doorway has a fan transom and a paneled door. The large veranda, supported by sets of wooden columns, stretches across the entire front façade; it is a later addition to the house.
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
81 Lake Street – The Armoury was constructed in 1905 and was designed to serve as the regimental headquarters of the local militia and continues to function as a drill hall. It was from The Armoury that local militia units left to go overseas in 1914 and 1939, and for peacekeeping duties. The bulky, rectangular shape of the armoury is relieved by an irregular roof line and the stylistic diversity of its two basic constituencies. The expansive gable roof and the rhythmic course of arched windows marking the drill hall contrast with the crenelated towers, jutting chimneys, and rigorous fenestration patterns of the street elevations. The use of consistent materials and continuous horizontal elements unifies the overall composition. Quarry faced stonework is juxtaposed with fields of flat brickwork which accentuate the visual links afforded by the massive foundations, string courses and copings. The interplay of colors and textures inherent on the masonry is an essential feature.
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
Lake Street – wraparound veranda, bay window
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
127-129 Lake Street – dormers, finials and verge board on gables, beveled dentil molding, voussoirs and keystones
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
72 Lake Street – dormers, cornice brackets, string course, voussoirs and keystones, two-storey bay window, rectangular bay window on side, bric-a-brac on veranda, sidelights and transom
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
76 Lake Street – Italianate style, verge board trim on gables, voussoirs and keystones, bay windows, transom windows
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
1 Montebello Place – Queen Anne style – varied roof line, turret, wraparound veranda on two levels, Palladian windows in gables, dormers
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
10 Norris Place – 1874 – Norris Place in St. Catharines, Ontario is named after Captain James Norris who was a sea captain, businessman, Mayor of St Catharines and Member of Parliament. James Norris, one of the successful business men and leading manufacturers of St. Catharines, was born in Argyleshire, Scotland, in February 1820. At age fourteen, immigrated with his family to Upper Canada. When he was nineteen or twenty years of age, he came to St. Catharines, sailing on the lakes and Welland Canal in the season of navigation.
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
9 Norris Place – Mr. Norris owned this place. Decorative entrance, octagonal veranda
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
135 Ontario Street – fretwork, two storey bay windows, pediment

St. Catharines, Ontario – Book 3 in Colour Photos – My Top 9 Picks

St. Catharines is the largest city in Canada’s Niagara Region in Southern Ontario. It is 51 kilometers (32 miles) south of Toronto across Lake Ontario, and is 19 kilometers (12 miles) inland from the international boundary with the United States along the Niagara River. It is the northern entrance of the Welland Canal.

St. Catharines carries the official nickname “The Garden City” due to its 1,000 acres of parks, gardens and trails.

The city was first settled by Loyalists in the 1780s. The Crown granted them land in compensation for their services and for losses in the United States. Early histories credit Sergeant Jacob Dittrick and Private John Hainer, formerly of Butler’s Rangers, as among the first to come to the area. They took their Crown Patents where Dick’s Creek and 12 Mile Creek merge, now the city center of St. Catharines.

Secondary to water routes, native trails provided transportation networks, resulting in the present-day radial road pattern from the City center.

After the Butler’s Rangers disbanded in 1784 and settled the area, Duncan Murray as a former Quartermaster was appointed by the Crown to distribute free Government supplies (victuals) for two years to the resettled Loyalists. He did this from his mill, built on the 12 Mile Creek in Power Glen. After his death in 1786, his holdings went to merchant Robert Hamilton of Queenston. Hamilton became land wealthy, expropriating lands from subsistence Loyalist settlers who were incapable of settling their debts. Hamilton’s major profits were derived from transhipping supplies for the military and civic establishments from his Queenston enterprise. He sold his business to Jesse Thompson before the turn of the 18th century.

The Merritt family arrived; they were among the later Loyalists to relocate following the American Revolution. In 1796, Thomas Merritt arrived to build on his relationship with his former Commander and Queen’s Ranger, John Graves Simcoe, now the Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada.

An old Iroquois Trail was renamed St. Paul Street by the settlers by the mid-19th century. Several mills, salt works, retail outlets, a ship building yard, distillery and various other businesses were developed next.

Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
15 Bayview Drive
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
22 Bayview Drive – arched entranceway with a pillared open balustrade balcony above; verge board trim and finials on gables; two storey turret, dormers
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
56 Bayview Drive – chipped gable, Tudor half-timbering
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
135 Bradley Street was built about 1849-1851 and was originally used as a semi-detached Lock tender’s House and was located adjacent to the second Welland Canal. It is a one-and-a-half storey dwelling built of local sandstone laid in random coursing with dressed limestone quoins at the corners. In the backyard of the property there used to be a quarry and some of the stone that was used on the Second Welland Canal was quarried here.
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
77 Bradley Street was constructed in 1851 and was a Lock tender’s House providing accommodations for men tending the locks of the Welland Canal. The semi-detached, one-and-a-half storey dwelling was built of sandstone cut from a quarry close to the house. It is accented with limestone corner quoins and stone lintels and sills. Lock tenders aided the navigation of ships through the Welland Canals.
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
51 Mountain Street – Jacob Ball, United Empire Loyalist – circa 1824 – The original stone portion of this house has a two-storey, five bay aspect facing the driveway. The main façade is of split face ashlar coursing with cut stone quoins. The sidewalls are of a more random coursing and all stone is local. All the windows have solid stone sills, some with solid stone lintels and others with a flat arch of the same local stone. The land on which the building is located was originally a Crown Grant to George Ball in 1796. The property was sold to the Public Works Department in 1843 and was then turned over to the Welland Canal Loan Company. During this period, the building was used as the home of the lockmaster, overseeing the work of seventeen lock tenders.
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
343 Merritt Street – The former Merritton Town Hall was constructed in 1879 by James MacDonald. The building is a rectangular structure made of local sandstone on the exterior. It is described as Victorian architecture with contrasting quoins, a string belt course, and radiating arch voussoirs over the windows and doors. The projecting bell tower has detailed stone work and an interesting shaped roof. The hip roof is trimmed with a boxed cornice with a frieze and brackets. The front double doors have a fan transom and are inset in the center of the bell tower. The building housed municipal offices, a community center, the mechanics institute, the waterworks commission, and the library. In 1888, the fire department was formed and moved into the building. Merritton Town Hall was the hub of the community where town members gathered for dances, concerts and movie showings.
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
159 Moffatt Street – The Phelps-Austin House is located in a prominent location overlooking the former second Welland Canal and the valley where the original owner, Noah Phelps, operated his sawmill. It is a two-storey frame house with a high cross-gabled roof. Each façade is arranged in a picturesque fashion.
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
124 Rolls Avenue – Saints Cyril and Methodius Ukrainian Catholic Church – The style is Byzantine Revival which is typified by domes, decorative brickwork and stone arches. The plan of the building is typical church cruciform with a main rectangular body (nave) crossed by a transept. There are six multi-sided domes on the roof. The elaborate detailing is characteristic of this style and features seven different colours and textures of brick and stone executed mainly as varying heights of bands around the building. The front elevation is a gable with towers and domes symmetrically placed on either side. The front entrance features a grand tiled staircase with decorative pre-cast concrete piers and painted iron railings. The glass doors and semi-circular transom above are trimmed with stone. The windows are semi-circular and trimmed with brick or stone.

St. Catharines, Ontario – Book 2 in Colour Photos – My Top 7 Picks

At the time of European colonization, the British Crown appropriated the land from the Neutral Indians, and transferred title of the area to Captain Peter Tenbroeck, a United Empire Loyalist officer in Butler’s Rangers, as part of an 800 acre land grant. Tenbroeck and other settlers established farms along the Twelve Mile Creek. Within a few years, ships began to ply the waters of Lake Ontario, but only small craft could navigate to the fledgling mills and hamlet of Shipman’s Corners, later St. Catharines.

The northern entrance to the Welland Canal was at Port Dalhousie. Industries and services to meet the needs of the growing settlement were established. In 1837, a Scottish boat builder called Robert Abbey started a shipyard at Port Dalhousie, building yawls, sailing yachts and eventually steam yachts.

Confederation in 1867 was a major factor in the building of the Third Welland Canal. A new and enlarged waterway was needed for the larger steamers on the Great Lakes. By 1890 almost 300,000 tons of cargo were shipped along the canal each year, primarily wheat, corn, coal and forest products. By 1914, this had increased to almost four million tons. Further canal enlargements were demanded and a new Welland Ship Canal was completed in 1930 which bypassed Port Dalhousie.

Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
106 Dalhousie Avenue – dormers
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
88 Dalhousie Avenue – second floor balcony on side
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
82 Dalhousie Avenue – dormer, corner quoins, bay window
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
76 Dalhousie Avenue – Palladian window in gable
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
52 Dalhousie Avenue – Neo-Classical – two storeys, symmetrical façade, second floor semi-circular balcony above pillared porch
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
Dalhousie Avenue – sidelights and transom windows, two-storey verandah with Doric pillars and open balustrade, dormers in roof
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
29 Dalhousie Avenue – Gothic Revival, verge board trim on gables, cornice brackets above bay windows

St. Catharines, Ontario – Book 1 in Colour Photos – My Top 9 Picks

The Port Dalhousie community is located on a small peninsula that separates Martindale Pond from Lake Ontario. The historical growth of this community around an elongated road grid pattern can be directly attributed to the development of the Welland canals, commerce, industry and Great Lakes shipping during the 19th century. By the end of the 20th century, Port Dalhousie began to be recognized as an area of rich cultural heritage.

The commercial core, located on Lakeport Road, Lock Street and Hogan´s Alley, is characterized by varying architectural styles from the 19th and early 20th centuries, ranging from red and buff brick to Italianate.

The residential area is comprised of dwellings once inhabited by sailors, canal workers, business people, lock tenders, farmers and many other individuals from an eclectic mix of social classes. Architectural styles include Gothic Revival, Colonial Revival, and Neo-classical among others.

Port Dalhousie was the terminus for the first three routes of the Welland Canal, built in 1820, 1845 and 1889. The city’s most popular beach, on the shore of Lake Ontario, is located in Port Dalhousie at Lakeside Park. The park is home to an antique carousel which was carved by Charles I. D. Looff in 1905 and brought to St. Catharines in 1921. It continues to provide amusement for young and old alike, at just 5 cents a ride. Port Dalhousie is named for George Ramsay, 9th Earl of Dalhousie, Governor General of British North America from 1820-1828.

At the time of European colonization, the British Crown appropriated the land from the Neutral Indians, and transferred title of the area to Captain Peter Tenbroeck, a United Empire Loyalist officer in Butler’s Rangers, as part of an 800 acre land grant. Tenbroeck and other settlers established farms along the Twelve Mile Creek. Within a few years, ships began to ply the waters of Lake Ontario, but only small craft could navigate to the fledgling mills and hamlet of Shipman’s Corners, later St. Catharines.

The northern entrance to the Welland Canal was at Port Dalhousie. Industries and services to meet the needs of the growing settlement were established. In 1837, a Scottish boat builder called Robert Abbey started a shipyard at Port Dalhousie, building yawls, sailing yachts and eventually steam yachts.

Confederation in 1867 was a major factor in the building of the Third Welland Canal. A new and enlarged waterway was needed for the larger steamers on the Great Lakes. By 1890 almost 300,000 tons of cargo were shipped along the canal each year, primarily wheat, corn, coal and forest products. By 1914, this had increased to almost four million tons. Further canal enlargements were needed and a new Welland Ship Canal was completed in 1930 which bypassed Port Dalhousie.

Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
34 Main Street
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
55 Main Street
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
58 Main Street
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
73 Main Street
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
109 Main Street – two storey, Italianate, hipped roof, keystones and voussoirs above windows and door
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
127 Main Street – pediment, Palladian window in gable
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
Main Street – Tudor timbering on stucco
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
206 Main Street – dormers
Architectural Photos, St. Catharines, Ontario
The factory at 63 Lakeport Road was built between 1899 and 1900 for the Maple Leaf Rubber Company. In 1955 A. Stewart Howes established Lincoln Fabrics Limited as a weaver of specialty fabrics. Stewart’s son David assumed leadership of the company from 1983 until his death in 2015. Both father and son were committed to a family oriented business employing a loyal and skilled workforce from the local community. Both were involved in the community.

Grimsby, Ontario – Book 2 in Colour Photos – My Top 7 Picks

Before written history, the Neutral Indians lived here. It was a perfect home with forests teeming with game, the lake providing fresh fish and transportation, and the fertile plain ideal for agriculture. The Neutrals were wiped out by their enemies by 1650.

In 1787, a group of United Empire Loyalists arrived from New Jersey. They named their little settlement The Forty after the creek which was believed to be forty miles from the mouth of the Niagara River.

John Graves Simcoe, an officer of the British army who served in the American War of Independence, became the first lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada (Ontario) from 1792-1796. The naming of the newly surveyed townships was part of his duty, and on a number of them he gave places names from Lincolnshire, England. One of these was Grimsby.

In the early days the many creeks on top of the Niagara Escarpment which flowed into Lake Ontario – each with a waterfall – were named according to their approximate distance from the Niagara River. There is the Twelve Mile creek, the Sixteen, the Twenty, the Forty, etc. It was along these creeks and stretching back from then on either side that the first settlers took up their land and built their log cabins, their saw mills and grist mills. This is how the Settlement at The Forty – later called Grimsby (from the name of the township) – began.

Less than twenty years after the arrival of the first settlers, the United States declared war on Britain and began by attacking Canada from three points – one of them was Niagara. In 1813, the Engagement at the Forty occurred on June 8, 1813. American forces, retreating after the Battle of Stoney creek, were bombarded by a British flotilla under Sir James Lucas Yeo. Indians and groups of the 4th and 5th Regiments Lincoln Militia joined in the attack and created such confusion in the enemy ranks that they abandoned this position and retreated to Fort George.

Architectural Photos, Grimsby, Ontario
14 Robinson Street South – Helen Gibson House – Local quarryman and builder, W.F. Gibson, built the first two cement block homes in Grimsby at 14 and 16 Robinson Street South in 1912. In 1921, Mr. Gibson completely rebuilt 14 Robinson Street South. The building was reconstructed in the classical Georgian style with its long sharply pitched roof, internal chimney, symmetrical facade and centre hall layout. Plaster and stucco were then applied to the cement block. Dominating the front entrance is a Neo-Classical vaultro portico.
Architectural Photos, Grimsby, Ontario
23 Mountain Street – This home was built in 1855 by John H. Grout, son of Reverend George Grout the rector of St. Andrew’s Church. John became an important citizen, and entrepreneur who established the Grout Agricultural Works which manufactured reapers and mowers, the most modern farm machinery. He became a Reeve in 1876 when Grimsby became a town. Note the fine detail over the windows of the house and the stained glass windows framing the door.
Architectural Photos, Grimsby, Ontario
The Gibson house at 114 Gibson Avenue was built circa 1860 by Robert Lillie Gibson using red variegated free stone from his quarries on the escarpment above. He came to Grimsby in search of good stone for quarrying. Robert and the men in this family were stonemasons from Scotland. He settled on the west above Grimsby and established a quarry there. He met and fell in love with Frances Thompson and they were married. Robert built the little house at 102 Gibson Avenue for his bride, but he began work on the lovely stone house by Forty Mile Creek. Robert’s quarry above the house was a success due to the building boom in public structures and railway bridges during that era. Rock was carried from the quarry to waiting ships by means of a little railway that ran from the base of the escarpment to the foot of Maple Avenue where a pier was built for this purpose. In 1870, Robert opened a second quarry in Beamsville. At that time, he brought his 21-year-old nephew, William from Scotland to act as bookkeeper. When Robert died in an unfortunate accident in 1882, William took over the operation of the quarries. In 1891, William ran successfully for Parliament, holding his seat until 1902. He was then appointed to the Senate. Senator Gibson School in Beamsville is named for him.
Architectural Photos, Grimsby, Ontario
25 Adelaide Street was constructed in 1911 as a result of an $8,000 grant from the Carnegie Corporation of New York whose purpose was to promote the advancement of knowledge. It served as Grimsby’s library until 2003. The three-part façade represents strength, wisdom and beauty. The portico is in the classic Greek design.
Architectural Photos, Grimsby, Ontario
18 Nelles Road North – William Boise Nelles built this house on his fruit farm in 1905. Around 1800, William Nelles built The Hermitage on land near Lake Ontario. When he died, the land was divided between his sons, Peter Ball Nelles and John Adolphus Nelles. Peter had the eastern portion of the land, which he called Chestnut Park. John Adolphus had the western part on which he built Lakelawn.
Architectural Photos, Grimsby, Ontario
376 Nelles Road North – Lakelawn, named for the grassy stretch between the house and lake, was built in 1846 by John Adolphus Nelles, son of William and nephew of Robert. The house remained in the family until the death of John’s great-granddaughter, Mary Burnham in 1986. John’s brother Peter Ball Nelles shared this property and built a lovely home called Stone Shanty. It was unfortunately razed when the Queen Elizabeth Highway was built.
Architectural Photos, Grimsby, Ontario
13 Fair Avenue – Edwardian style – second floor sleeping balcony

Grimsby, Ontario – Book 1 in Colour Photos – My Top 14 Picks

Grimsby is a town on Lake Ontario in the Niagara Region. It is named after the English fishing town of Grimsby in North East Lincolnshire. The majority of residents reside in the area bounded by Lake Ontario and the Niagara Escarpment. Grimsby has experienced significant growth over the past decade as the midpoint between Hamilton and St. Catharines.

The town of Grimsby was founded in 1790 (originally named Township Number 6 and then ‘The Forty’), after a group of United Empire Loyalists settled at the mouth of 40 Mile Creek in 1787. A Loyalist from the Mohawk Valley, New York, Robert Nelles and his father and brothers were among the first to settle at The Forty following the American Revolution. Robert Nelles was a politician and later lieutenant-colonel in the War of 1812. In 1816 the village became known as Grimsby, the name of the surrounding township.

The town has gone through many changes, from being a small rural village; to a centre for the manufacture of farm machinery, hospital furniture, furnaces and other metal products; and later the hub of the Niagara Peninsula’s fruit-growing industry. Grimsby had a successful fishing industry which lasted until the 1960s. The Town of Grimsby and the Township of North Grimsby were amalgamated in 1970 with the formation of the Regional Municipality of Niagara. With a number of wineries and distilleries, Grimsby now serves as the starting point for touring the Niagara wine region.

Grimsby is the birthplace of Hollywood director, Del Lord who rose to acclaim as the director of most of the Three Stooges short vaudeville comedies. Later, under Columbia Pictures, he directed nearly two hundred feature films.

Grimsby Beach was once a major holiday resort. Grimsby Park started in 1846 as a park for the Hamilton district of the Methodist Church. In 1910, the park’s new owner, Harry Wylie, modernized the park with carousels, a motion picture theatre, and a “Figure 8” roller coaster. Operations continued until 1949, with attractions gradually closing and developers buying land to build houses.

Bisecting the town is the Queen Elizabeth Way. It has three exchanges in the town, with Casablanca Boulevard in the west, a central exchange for three roads (Christie Street, Ontario Street, and Maple Avenue), and Bartlett Avenue in the east.

Architectural Photos, Grimsby, Ontario
245 Main Street East – The first house here, called Inchyra, was built in 1846 by John Beamer Bowslaugh but was destroyed by fire in 1874 and was rebuilt as it is today. Bowslaugh was the benefactor of Grimsby Park. The widow’s walk was built around 1920. A widow’s walk is a railed rooftop platform, originally designed to observe vessels at sea. The name comes from the wives of mariners who would watch for their spouses to return. In some instances, the ocean took the lives of the mariners, leaving the women as widows; they would often gaze out to sea wishing that their loved ones would return home and the name widow’s walk was born.
Architectural Photos, Grimsby, Ontario
239 Main Street East – dormer in attic, 2½-storey bay window
Architectural Photos, Grimsby, Ontario
217 Main Street East – Park Public School – In 1805, School Section (S.S.) No. 1 North Grimsby Township was built of logs on what is now known as Park Road. A frame building was erected on the southeast corner of Park Road and what is now Regional Road 81 in1825. This building served as the school until 1865, when a one room red brick schoolhouse was built. The first teacher was Walter H. Nelles. In those early days, the teacher boarded with a nearby family. The teacher’s board paid for the tuition for the children in the family. Fifty cents a week was paid to the family responsible for starting the fire in the school every morning, and another fifty cents went to those who swept and dusted the school. By 1909, a larger school was needed because of the growing number of people living in the Grimsby Beach area to the north of the school. A four-room brick building was constructed on the present site on a two acre parcel of land. As the school board had decided in 1909 to build the school much larger than needed, it wasn’t until 195l that expansion was necessary. Two classrooms were added, and modern flush toilets and heating were installed.
Architectural Photos, Grimsby, Ontario
130 Main Street East – Walter Nelles, son of Peter Ball Nelles and his wife Mary Sumner, built this Italianate style house with a hipped roof with deck, 2½-storey frontispiece, paired cornice brackets, voussoirs and keystones, corner quoins, pediment above entrance.
Architectural Photos, Grimsby, Ontario
91 Main Street East – 2½-storey frontispiece, dichromatic corner quoining, cornice brackets, broken pediment above door
Architectural Photos, Grimsby, Ontario
22 Main Street West – built in 1839 by Dr. Jonathan Woolverton. It was his home and office until his death in 1883. It has a three-storey tower, turret, dormer, second floor balconies, pediments above doors with sidelights, battlement above door to right of picture
Architectural Photos, Grimsby, Ontario
126 Main Street West – Nelles Manor is a historic home completed in 1798 by Colonel Robert Nelles, a Loyalist from the Mohawk Valley, New York. The house is considered to be the oldest inhabited dwelling between Niagara and Kingston. It was built in the Georgian style of locally quarried stone over a ten year period (1788-98). Built facing north and Lake Ontario on an old path called Squire Nelles’ Lane, the main entrance was later moved to the south on the other side, with a pillared porch facing on to the new Stone Road (now Main Street). The Neo-Classical portico was added in the early 1820s. This home served as Nelles’ residence during his lengthy career as Justice of the Peace, Member of the Legislative Assembly and Commander of the 14th Lincoln Militia. Colonel Nelles’ office was a small room on the north side, where he performed many marriages before clergy were available. The house was a centre for gala events and remained in the Nelles family possession until 1963. It has seven fireplaces, walnut woodwork and spacious halls and rooms. Originally a private residence, it was turned into a museum in 2016 and is now open to the public.
Architectural Photos, Grimsby, Ontario
92 Main Street West – hipped roof, 2½-storey tower-like bay with half-circle window in gable, voussoirs and keystones, pediment above porch
Architectural Photos, Grimsby, Ontario
99 Main Street West – This small stone cottage is believed to have been built for the Nelles family seamstress by a stone mason who used the stone left over from the building of Nelles Manor. A resident seamstress was a necessity since manufactured garments were not available in pioneer Upper Canada. It is believed to date from about 1812. Ann, the present owner, has lived there for twenty-seven years. Gothic – cornice return on gable, bay window
Architectural Photos, Grimsby, Ontario
123 Main Street West – Dolmage House – circa 1876 – Robert Dolmage (1820-1889), a general merchant on Main Street, built this red brick home for his wife and daughters. After his wife’s death in 1904, the girls care was entrusted to Claude Boden, a shop assistant who had been adopted by Robert. When the last sister Florence died in 1945, she left her estate to Claude who was then free to marry his long-time fiancée Cora March, a teacher at Hagar School. The historic house now operates as The Iron Gate Retreat, a day spa.
Architectural Photos, Grimsby, Ontario
127 Main Street West – This home was originally built as Henry Nelles’ merchant shop and granary. The joinery used to build the house indicates that it was originally constructed by ship carpenters. The post and beam interior is made of lovely red pine. At one time this would have been a local gathering place as residents purchased their needed supplies. There is a cornice return on the gable.
Architectural Photos, Grimsby, Ontario
159 Main Street West – White House was built in 1830 by John Grout for his son, Reverend George Grout. The White House is an elegant two-storey Loyalist Neo-Classical house in the Georgian style. It is a solid stone house with white plastered walls. The two-tiered porch, a later addition, has four fluted Doric columns with square bases supporting the upper portion of the porch. Plain hand rails are on either side of the main entrance. More decorative balusters and molded hand rails border the upper tier. A pair of pilasters separates the sidelights from the doorway. The upper windows are in a pattern of twelve panes over eight, the lower larger sash windows are twelve over twelve. The low pitched, hip roof of the main house is trimmed by a plain fascia and molded soffit. There are three brick chimneys. The house is said to have served as part of the Underground Railroad and a refuge for former slaves.
Architectural Photos, Grimsby, Ontario
326 Main Street West – turret with widow’s walk, full-width 2nd floor balcony
Architectural Photos, Grimsby, Ontario
390 Main Street West – names for the house are Smith-Geddes House, Thornfield Hall, The Stone House – The two-and-a-half-storey stone building was constructed between 1876 and 1878. The Smith-Geddes House was built on a flat area of land amidst orchards of peach and cherry trees. The rural location, close to Lake Ontario to the northeast and the Niagara escarpment to the southwest, creates a unique natural setting. Born in 1828, John Henry Smith was a descendant of one of the area’s earliest settlers, United Empire Loyalist John Smith. John Smith came with his wife and children to the Grimsby area in 1787, and settled on a land grant between the Niagara escarpment and Lake Ontario. Smith-Geddes House was built for his son, John Henry Smith, a businessman and entrepreneur.

Mount Pleasant, Newport, Onondaga, Middleport, Ontario in Colour Photos – My Top 16 Picks

Township of Brantford

Brantford Township was the largest and most central township of Brant County. The first area settled was along Fairchild’s Creek north west of Cainsville. The township was blessed with many creeks that were developed with mills. The first industrial operation in the township was a mill operated by James Percy in Mount Pleasant. The township also has fertile soil and land was quickly settled and within twenty-five years was well under cultivation and thriving. Within the township are the villages of Mount Pleasant, Burtch, Newport, Cainsville and Langford, as well as the homes of Alexander Graham Bell and George Brown, a father of confederation.

Within decades of its founding in 1799 by the Ellis and Sturgis families, Mount Pleasant was a prosperous and cultured settlement with flourishing farms, inns, mills, schools, a drill hall, and commercial establishments. Today Mount Pleasant’s long and lovely main street retains much of its rural charm and many of its old homes, churches, and farmsteads. Mount Pleasant Road is part of the Long Point Trail, an old Indian trail which went from the Grand River in Brantford south to Lake Erie.

Emily Stowe was the first woman to practice medicine in Canada and also the first woman school principal. After her marriage in 1856 to carriage-maker John Stowe, she taught at the renowned Nelles Academy at 667 Mount Pleasant Road. She studied medicine in the United States because she was refused admission to a Canadian medical school. She did a lot of campaigning for increased education opportunities for women, and her daughter, Augusta Stowe Gullen, born in Mount Pleasant in 1857, became the first woman to graduate in medicine from a Canadian university in 1883.

One of the earliest settlers in the area of Newport was Edee Burtch who purchased land from Joseph Brant around 1796. As more settlers arrived, the area became known as Burtch’s Landing and was later renamed Newport. Newport was laid out for settlement by Thaddeus Smith in l857. Newport was a thriving shipping port offering passenger service to Buffalo on the Red Jacket and Queen paddle wheel steamers that operated on the Grand River. There were also facilities for handling general freight. The village with several hundred people had two wagon and carriage shops, two blacksmith shops, brickyards, several general stores, a post office, two churches, a school, a tavern/ hotel, a sawmill, grain warehouses and a grist mill.

Township of Onondaga

The township was named for the Onondagas, a nation within the Six Nations. They settled on land granted to the Six Nations under the Haldimand Proclamation of 1784. The Grand River, which forms the southern boundary of the county of Brant, was the main artery for transportation, communication, and economic sustenance. Today this river is mainly used for recreation. In the 1830s settlers began moving into this rich agricultural area.

This Village of Onondaga was first known as Smith’s Corners for David Smith who operated a grocery store and a saloon. The name was later changed to Onondaga. The village became a thriving community in the mid-19th century because of the Buffalo, Brantford, and Goderich Railway station located here. Schools, churches, hotels and taverns, grist and sawmills, blacksmith shops, stores and small manufacturing shops developed.

The Grand River Navigation Company played an important role in the establishment of the Village of Middleport. On November 7, 1848 navigation was opened on the Grand River from Brantford to Dunnville through a series of locks and dams. Middleport, founded by John Solomon Hager, was midway between the locks at Brantford and the Village of Caledonia making it an important port.

Architectural Photos, Mount Pleasant, Ontario
849 Mount Pleasant Road – circa 1850s – Italianate home – Archibald McEwen, a prosperous farmer and merchant, had a store on the same property.
Architectural Photos, Mount Pleasant, Ontario
726 Mount Pleasant Road – circa 1870s – Owned by Dr. Duncan Marquis, a highly-regarded local doctor, this charming vernacular frame house in the unusual dormer style was probably built in the 1870s and is essentially unaltered.
Architectural Photos, Mount Pleasant, Ontario
704 Mount Pleasant Road – Devlin’s Country Bistro – 1834 – This Neo-Gothic former general store and post office has been a landmark in the village since it was built in 1834. It is the birthplace of Arthur Sturgis Hardy, a prominent lawyer and the fourth Premier of Ontario.
Architectural Photos, Mount Pleasant, Ontario
657 Mount Pleasant Road – Abraham Cooke built this Georgian/Greek Revival mansion circa 1840. When Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada Lord Elgin visited in 1846, he was so impressed he asked for the privilege of naming it “Brucefield” after his family.
Architectural Photos, Mount Pleasant, Ontario
646 Mount Pleasant Road – Scape Spa – This circa 1850 Neo-Gothic style octagon is the only survivor of three similar buildings in Mount Pleasant. Shoemaker Richard Tennant took eight years to build it. Belvedere on the roof.
Architectural Photos, Mount Pleasant, Ontario
641 Mount Pleasant Road – This farmhouse was built in 1860 in distinctive Regency style evident in the long front windows in fitted panels. The bay window has Victorian details. Both the Phelps and McAllister families have a multi-generation history in the village reaching back to the early 1800s.
Architectural Photos, Mount Pleasant, Ontario
637 Mount Pleasant Road – Emily Townsend House, circa 1860s – Alvah Townsend built this house for his daughter. It is a Neo-Gothic style home which has been well maintained.
Architectural Photos, Mount Pleasant, Ontario
597 Mount Pleasant Road – Georgian Revival built circa 1848 for landowner and carriage maker Alvah Townsend. The style exhibits the horizontal profile and symmetrical arrangement of doors and windows.
Architectural Photos, Mount Pleasant, Ontario
538 Mount Pleasant Road – The Phelps-Guest House, circa 1840s, was built in three stages. The original home was of stone construction with a board and batten addition to the rear and a buff brick Italianate addition added to the front in the 1880s.
Architectural Photos, Mount Pleasant, Ontario
94 Tutela Heights Road – The Bell Homestead was built in 1858 by the original owner and builder Robert Morton. It was here on July 26, 1874 during his summer vacation that Alexander Graham Bell discovered the fundamental concept for the telephone. He returned to Brantford from Boston, Massachusetts in September 1875 at which time he drafted the patent specifications for the device. In 1876 Bell set up and completed the world’s first long distance telephone call between Brantford and Paris. The homestead evokes the formative influence of Bell’s father, an authority on the acoustics of speech, and of his mother who was deaf. They stimulated their son’s lifelong interest in teaching the deaf to speak, a passion that proved crucial to the discovery of the telephone.
Architectural Photos, Newport, Ontario
255 River Road, Newport – The Thomas house was built in 1835 at 1030 Colborne Street East by Captain Joseph Thomas on land purchased by his father John Thomas who helped build the Mohawk Chapel. John was a close friend of Captain Joseph Brant. The walls are one foot thick and the double-stud main frame is made of 12” x 12” beams. Massive fireplaces were built up from the lower level indicating that the masons did this work before the framers began. In 1993, to make way for development on Colborne Street, the house was cut in half and moved to where it sits today on top of the small hill on River Road. The owner has lovingly been restoring this home to its former glory.
Architectural Photos, Onondaga, Ontario
744 Highway 54, Onondaga
Architectural Photos, Onondaga, Ontario
1037 Highway 54 – Chiefswood was built from 1853-1856 by Chief George Johnson for his English wife Emily Howells. The two cultural traditions were blended in the construction of the house in the Italianate style. It has two front doors – one facing the Grand River and the other the highway. The large two-storey mansion is symmetrical with matching French windows. One of George and Emily’s children was Emily Pauline Johnson, the famous Indian poetess. Among her works are: “The Song My Paddle Sings” and “Train Dogs.”
Architectural Photos, Middleport, Ontario
518 Baptist Church Road, Middleport – Gothic Revival, corner quoins
Architectural Photos, Middleport, Ontario
291 Baptist Church Road, Middleport – Howden Home and Barns, 1883 – In 1856, Thomas Howden and his wife Jane came from Ireland and purchased this 100 acre farm. Their eleven children grew up here. There are 14 rooms, 3 sets of stairs, and more than 50 windows and doors. Three gables trimmed bargeboard contain Gothic windows. The front and side verandas are enclosed with pairs of rounded arched windows and the small gable on the front veranda contains a tiny Gothic window. Quoins accent the corners of the house.
Architectural Photos, Middleport, Ontario
301 Big Creek Road, Middleport – Cherwell House, circa 1850s – 1½-storey brick farmhouse – buff brick quoins on the corners, buff brick highlights around windows and door and a frieze at the top of the first storey elevation.

Burford, Ontario in Colour Photos Book 2 – My Top 8 Picks

Burford is in the County of Brant and is located eight kilometers west of the City of Brantford along Highway 53, and seventy kilometers east of London.

 In 1793 Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe granted to Abraham Dayton the entire Township of Burford. Dayton was a native of Milford, Connecticut. The township was to become the “new Jerusalem” for a religious sect with which he was affiliated. Dayton broke his ties with the sect and settled just west of the present village of Burford. He was responsible for bringing several families into the township and by the spring of 1797 the new settlement consisted of twenty-one families. Abraham Dayton died March 1, 1797 after a prolonged illness. Abigail Dayton, Abraham’s widow, later married Colonel Joel Stone and moved to Gananoque where she lived until her death in 1843 at the age of 93.The Dayton’s only child, Abiah, was the wife of Benajah Mallory and she and her husband followed her parents into this township. Benajah Mallory became a man of considerable influence and by 1805 was elected Member of the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada representing Norfolk, Oxford, and Middlesex. In June 1812, war was declared against Upper Canada by the United States. During the course of the war, Mallory accepted a commission in the U.S. forces and was considered a traitor back home. Benajah Mallory became outlawed and his land was forfeited to the Crown.

John Yeigh, his wife Mary and their children Jacob, John Junior, Adam,Henry and Eva arrived in Burford from Pennsylvania by covered wagon in June1800. The family cleared land, farmed and established the first pottery in the Burford area. Jacob and Adam distinguished themselves in the War of 1812 and were also active participants in the 1837 Rebellion.

Mount Vernon was originally named Springfield and subsequently Chequered Sheds because the posts were painted in black and white checkerboard fashion to mark several parking spots for rigs at the hotel across from Kenny’s Store. The present name, according to oral history, was given by a railway company in honor of the home of George Washington, the first president of the United States.

Thomas Perrin laid out the village. He established the first store in 1835, built the first sawmill in 1840 and the first gristmill in 1845.

Bishopsgate is located on Highway 53 between Mount Vernon and Burford.

Langford is located on Highway 2/53 east of Fairchild’s Creek about three kilometers east of Cainsville. The village was named for Jacob Lang, an early settler who came from Pennsylvania to this area bout 1807. United Empire Loyalists settled here in the late 1700s. Several streams flowing south gave power to saw and grist mills in the area. A brickyard and a blacksmith shop were established here. The first post office was called Lang’s Ford as all of the travelers had to ford the swampy stream in the hollow just east of Jacob Lang’s farm. Later the name was changed to Langford.

Architectural Photos, Burford, Ontario
280 Maple Avenue South – built in Neo-Classic style by W. H. Metcalf – hipped roof, cornice brackets, raised corner quoins; Metcalf Family Crest carved in the wall
Architectural Photos, Burford, Ontario
358 Maple Avenue South – Italianate – dichromatic brickwork on corners
Architectural Photos, Burford, Ontario
363 Maple Avenue South – built in the Queen Anne style by George Holt with a wraparound porch with wooden pillars. The upper storey has a bay window with one gable and cornice returns and rounded windows. There is decorative fretting under the eaves.
Architectural Photos, Burford, Ontario
374 Maple Avenue South – cornice brackets, corner quoins
Architectural Photos, Burford, Ontario
114 Fairfield Road – 1891 – Jacob Williams built this house of red brick with a slate roof, beautiful stained glass windows and decorative brickwork over and under the windows. Front and side porches are original.
Architectural Photos, Burford, Ontario
212 Bishopsgate Road – corner quoins, verge board trim on gable, second floor balcony
Architectural Photos, Burford, Ontario
270 Bishopsgate Road – This Georgian house has elaborate porch arches and gingerbread with intricate fretwork. The windows are six over six panes.
Architectural Photos, Burford, Ontario
300 Bishopsgate Road – 1860 – This house has a beautiful field stone façade with extensive use of finely dressed limestone quoins, lintels and window labels.

Burford, Ontario in Colour Photos – My Top 9 Picks

Burford, Ontario in Colour Photos – My Top 9 Picks

Burford is in the County of Brant and is located eight kilometers west of the City of Brantford along Highway 53, and seventy kilometers east of London.

In 1793 Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe granted to Abraham Dayton the entire Township of Burford. Dayton was a native of Milford, Connecticut. The township was to become the “new Jerusalem” for a religious sect with which he was affiliated. Dayton broke his ties with the sect and settled just west of the present village of Burford. He was responsible for bringing several families into the township and by the spring of 1797 the new settlement consisted of twenty-one families. Abraham Dayton died March 1, 1797 after a prolonged illness. Abigail Dayton, Abraham’s widow, later married Colonel Joel Stone and moved to Gananoque where she lived until her death in 1843 at the age of 93. The Dayton’s only child, Abiah, was the wife of Benajah Mallory and she and her husband followed her parents into this township. Benajah Mallory became a man of considerable influence and by 1805 was elected Member of the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada representing Norfolk, Oxford, and Middlesex. In June 1812, war was declared against Upper Canada by the United States. During the course of the war, Mallory accepted a commission in the U.S. forces and was considered a traitor back home. Benajah Mallory became outlawed and his land was forfeited to the Crown.

John Yeigh, his wife Mary and their children Jacob, John Junior, Adam, Henry and Eva arrived in Burford from Pennsylvania by covered wagon in June 1800. The family cleared land, farmed and established the first pottery in the Burford area. Jacob and Adam distinguished themselves in the War of 1812 and were also active participants in the 1837 Rebellion.

Architecural Photos, Burford, Ontario

306 Highway 53 – Farrington House – 1883 – built by James Farrington – Italianate style with buff brick, decorative red string course and arches over the Roman style windows. The original front and side porches have gingerbread trim. James Farrington traveled to California during the gold rush as was involved in many successful business enterprises including ranching, gold and silver mining and high plains freighting

Architecural Photos, Burford, Ontario

378 West Quarter Townline Road – Heritage Property – This house has Roman influenced windows with alternating brick to simulate quoining and geometric shapes such as diamonds in the apex of the gable ends. It has three gable ends and both a front and side porch.

Architecural Photos, Burford, Ontario

110 King Street – Dr. Hervey Ross House – 1851 – It is usually called “The Miller House” and is a rare example of a Regency winged temple building. It is called a “winged plan” because it has a one and a half storey central body with flanking one-storey wings. Decorative features are fancy verge board along the front gable and French casement style windows.

Architecural Photos, Burford, Ontario

126 King Street – Post Office – A.D. 1914 – Two-storey smooth red brick structure has ashlar stone lintels and string courses at the window liens. It is sometimes called Edwardian in style because it was built during the reign of King Edward VII. The clock tower is a landmark for the business district.

Architectural Photos, Burford, Ontario

150 King Street – Armoury – 1906 – The central tower has a Roman arched window and Gothic detail as well as battlementing. The double front doors have a stained glass transom. It was used by the 1st Cavalry 2nd 10th Brant Dragoons for training and recreation. It served as a hospital during the flu epidemic of 1918 and a temporary high school in 1921. During the War of 1812, Burford became an important post, being located between Ancaster and Detroit. The military parade ground was located on this property and occupied most of what is now the residential block between William and Jarvis Streets.

Architectural Photos, Burford, Ontario

155 King Street – Heritage Property – c. 1835 – Sprowl House – Doric columns support a sleeper veranda used on hot summer nights. The six over six windows are original. This is the former home of A.D. Muir who was active in the militia and joined the Burford Troop of Cavalry in 1881. In 1813, following the defeat of the Canadians at the battle of Moraviantown (west of London), General Proctor persuaded a group of nearly 3000 native warriors and their families to retreat with him to a powerful for, which he claimed to be at Burford. Some of this group encamped her (across from the military parade grounds) while the rest of the group was located west of the village by the creek.

Architecural Photos, Burford, Ontario

158 King Street – dormers, iron cresting around second floor balcony

Architecural Photos, Burford, Ontario

159 King Street – 1888 – Gothic, iron cresting around second floor balcony, cornice brackets, stenciling and decorative veranda pillars, bay window on end of house

Architecural Photos, Burford, Ontario

55 Maple Avenue North – Stuart House – 1886 – was built by Elijah Stuart in the Georgian Symmetry style with Italianate features, segmental arched windows, double brackets under the eaves and quoining on the corners. The double-hung front door has a fanlight and the second floor door has a keystone arch linking the same color detail line across the front of the house.